This paper gives a unified approach to feedback control theory of quantum mechanical systems of bosonic modes described by noncommutative operators. A quantum optical closed-loop, including a plant and controller, is developed and its fundamental structural properties are analyzed extensively from a purely quantum mechanical point of view, in order to facilitate the use of control theory in microscopic world described by quantum theory. In particular, an input-output description of quantum mechanical systems which is essential in describing the behavior of the feedback systems is fully formulated and developed. This would then provide a powerful tool for quantum control and pave an avenue that connects control theory to quantum dynamics. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the basic formulation of quantum feedback control via quantum communication and local operations on an optical device, cavity, that can be regarded as a unit of quantum dynamics of bosonic modes. The formulation introduced in this paper presents the feature intrinsic in quantum feedback systems based on quantum stochastic differential equations. The input-output description provides a basis for developing quantum feedback control through the transfer function representation of quantum feedback systems. In the follow-up paper, the quantum mechanical representation of feedback is further elaborated to yield the control theoretical representation of fundamental notions of quantum theory, uncertainty principle, e.g., and some applications are presented.