The purpose of this paper was to determine the differences between internal and external pelvic landmark locations in different seating positions. A computer tool developed for the registration of two series of images was used to obtain the internal geometry. First, images of the pelvis were acquired by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each subject, in a supine position; internal landmarks were then identified on the images. Second, ultrasound images of the iliac crests were acquired in four seated positions. A registration algorithm was applied to obtain the transformation matrix between the two image reference systems. The MRI anatomical landmarks were, therefore, transferred into the ultrasound referential, to obtain their three-dimensional (3-D) location in the different seating positions. The external landmarks in those seated positions were identified with a 3-D digitizer. The results revealed that generally the internal and external coordinates of corresponding landmarks are statistically different. The differences are not only due to soft tissue thickness but also to different interpretations of the landmarks' locations between the supine and the seated postures. However, these differences generally did not affect significantly the accuracy with which orientation indexes can be estimated (pelvic tilt, obliquity, transverse rotation). Correlations were found between the internal and external coordinates, implying that linear regressions can be established.