Presents a fully monolithic K-band MMIC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) implemented by using a 0.25 /spl mu/m AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic HEMT (p-HEMT) technology. The use of a half-wavelength miniaturized hairpin-shaped resonator and a three-terminal p-HEMT varactor was effective in reducing the chip size and simplifying fabrication processes of the microwave MMIC VCO without impairing the performance of the circuit. The VCO provides a typical output power of 11.5 dBm at 20.8 GHz and a free-running phase noise of -82 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset and -95 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. It also shows a tuning range of 70 MHz with little reduction in output power and high yield properties. The chip size of the MMIC VCO is 1.5 /spl times/ 2.0 mm/sup 2/.