Throughout this article, we concentrate on the transcoding of block-based video coding schemes that use hybrid discrete cosine transform (DCT) and motion compensation (MC). In such schemes, the frames of the video sequence are divided into macroblocks (MBs), where each MB typically consists of a luminance block (e.g., of size 16 × 16, or alternatively, four 8 × 8 blocks) along with corresponding chrominance blocks (e.g., 8 × 8 Cb and 8 × 8 Cr). This article emphasizes the processing that is done on the luminance components of the video. In general, the chrominance components can be handled similarly and will not be discussed in this article. We first provide an overview of the techniques used for bit-rate reduction and the corresponding architectures that have been proposed. Then, we describe the advances regarding spatial and temporal resolution reduction techniques and architectures. Additionally, an overview of error resilient transcoding is also provided, as well as a discussion of scalable coding techniques and how they relate to video transcoding. Finally, the article ends with concluding remarks, including pointers to other works on video transcoding that have not been covered in this article, as well as some future directions.