Deliberate releases of biological agents to cause harm are now a reality. The bioterrorism attacks in the United States have affected Europe through the fear and false alarms they have generated. The member states of the European Union, working with the European Commission, are improving their planning and coordination to cope with deliberate releases of biological, chemical, and radiological agents designed to damage health. In this endeavour they are drawing from the lessons learned in the United States and cooperate closely not only with the United States but also with Canada, Japan, Mexico, and other countries, as well as the WHO. Health authorities and health services are in the forefront of this effort.