A new class of tunable and actuated microoptical devices is presented: pneumatic microoptics. Using microelectromechanical system fabrication technology extended by the use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes, tunable microlenses, and lens arrays, actuated micromirrors with large tilt angles and tip-tilt piston mirrors have been designed and fabricated. Actuation is by pressure: Gas- or liquid-filled microfluidic cavities are employed to distend the microfabricated PDMS structures which then act as a lens surface or as an actuator for a micromirror. Thermopneumatic actuation is also employed for completely integrated tunable optical systems in which all actuator and optical components are fabricated on-chip. The technology is particularly promising for microsystem applications in which significant movement is required but high voltages or external fields are impractical. [2007-0301].