This work consist in sampling and analyzing smoke released by typical Mediterranean vegetation during a fire. To proceed we used an experimental apparatus made of an air sampling pump with a cartridge filled with Tenaxreg TA. The sampling device was situated in a fixed place corresponding to the position of a fireman for the four studied stations. Analyses were performed at the laboratory by gas chromatography one day after the field experiment. Samples were Thermally Desorbed from the cartridges in the Gas Chromatography column coupled to a detector by Mass Spectrometry. We aim to characterize the risks related to the toxicity of smoke in actual conditions. Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) are highly toxic compounds that we propose to quantify in the smoke sampled during the fire.