Electronic voting can be as simple as a punch-card ballot that is tallied by machine, or as complex as today's most cutting-edge systems that let voters make a direct digital record of their choices simply by touching a screen. Either way, critics say, today's electronic systems are inherently flawed. It's not just that the code is bad, although that is one possibility. Rather, they say, the entire system of creation, certification, and implementation is simply fraught with potential security gaps. You can have a software programming error, which you never could have had before the days of electronic voting, but you can also have deliberate tampering in a thousand other ways.