Neurological disease or dysfunction in newborn infants is often first manifested by seizures. Prolonged seizures can result in impaired neurodevelopment or even death. In adults, the clinical signs of seizures are well defined and easily recognized. In newborns, however, the clinical signs are subtle and may be absent or easily missed without constant close observation. This article describes the use of adaptive signal processing techniques for removing artifacts from newborn electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Three adaptive algorithms have been designed in the context of EEG signals. This preprocessing is necessary before attempting a fine time-frequency analysis of EEG rhythmical activities, such as electrical seizures, corrupted by high amplitude signals. After an overview of newborn EEG signals, the authors describe the data acquisition set-up. They then introduce the basic physiological concepts related to normal and abnormal newborn EEGs and discuss the three adaptive algorithms for artifact removal. They also present time-frequency representations (TFRs) of seizure signals and discuss the estimation and modeling of the instantaneous frequency related to the main ridge of the TFR.