We present a method for distributed measurement of beat length, differential group delay, strain, and temperature in long length single-mode optical fibers. Toward this aim, we employ the polarization state sensitive effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The distributed measurement is realized by applying frequency-domain analysis. We present the analytical relationships between the Brillouin interaction of two counterpropagating waves in the fiber and the polarization states. Experimental results confirm the ability of the method to measure distributed beat length.