In this paper, a full-wave method for the electromagnetic analysis of dielectric-loaded cylindrical and coaxial waveguides and cavities is developed. For this purpose, a new four-port ring network is proposed, and the mode-matching method is applied to calculate the generalized admittance matrix of this new structure. A number of analyses on dielectric-loaded waveguide structures and cavities have been conducted in order to validate and to assess the accuracy of the new approach. The results have been compared with theoretical values, numerical modeling from the literature, and data from commercial electromagnetic simulators. The method has been also applied to the accurate determination of dielectric properties, and we provide an example of these measurements as another way to validate this new method.