Many cryptographic techniques have been developed and several were broken. Recently, new models have arisen with different and more complex approaches to cryptography and cryptanalysis, like those based on the Computational Intelligence (CI). Different bio-inspired techniques can be found in the literature showing their effectiveness in handling hard problems in the area of cryptology. However, some authors recognize that the advances have been slow and that more efforts are needed to take full advantage of CI techniques. In this work, we present a brief review of some of the relevant works in this area. The main objective is to better understand the advantages of applying CI on cryptology in the search for new ways of improving computer security.