The ever-increasing demand for higher data rates in wireless communications in the face of limited or underutilized spectral resources has motivated the introduction of cognitive radio. Traditionally, licensed spectrum is allocated over relatively long time periods and is intended to be used only by licensees. Various measurements of spectrum utilization have shown substantial unused resources in frequency, time, and space , . The concept behind cognitive radio is to exploit these underutilized spectral resources by reusing unused spectrum in an opportunistic manner , . The phrase cognitive radio is usually attributed to Mitola , but the idea of using learning and sensing machines to probe the radio spectrum was envisioned several decades earlier (cf., ).