In this paper, we consider the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant problem for a linear drive system subject to system noise. First, we propose a residual generator based on the Kalman filter, which can be used to detect if a failure occurs. Second, two Kalman filters are designed to diagnose the fault type. Third, when a fault is diagnosed, the fault-tolerant control is used to accommodate this failure. Finally, the proposed method is tested in a real linear drive system.