Fuzzy logic is used to define a new quantity called the battery working state (BWS), which is based on both battery terminal voltage and state of charge (SOC), to overcome the problem of battery over-discharge and associated damage resulting from inaccurate estimates of the SOC. The BWS is used by a fuzzy logic energy-management system of a plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to make a decision on the power split between the battery and the engine, based on the BWS and vehicle power demand, while controlling the engine to work in its fuel economic region. The fuzzy logic management system was tested in real time using an HEV simulation test bench with a real battery in the loop. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed fuzzy logic energy-management system under different driving conditions and battery SOCs. The results indicate that the fuzzy logic energy-management system using the BWS was effective in ensuring that the engine operates in the vicinity of its maximum fuel efficiency region while preventing the battery from over-discharging.