We investigate the optical and electrical characteristics of the GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on micro- and nano-scale patterned silicon substrate (MPLEDs and NPLEDs). The transmission electron microscopy images reveal the suppression of threading dislocation density in InGaN/GaN structure on nano-pattern substrate due to nano-scale epitaxial lateral overgrowth. The plan-view and cross-section cathodoluminescence mappings show less defective and more homogeneous active quantum-well region growth on nano-porous substrates. From temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and low temperature time-resolved PL measurement, NPLEDs have better carrier confinement and higher radiative recombination rate than MPLEDs. In terms of device performance, NPLEDs exhibit smaller electroluminescence peak wavelength blue shift, lower reverse leakage current and decrease in efficiency droop when compared with the MPLEDs. These results suggest the feasibility of using NPSi for the growth of high quality and power LEDs on Si substrates.