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Within the framework of Kyoto & Carbon Initiative of the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA), we used JERS-1 and ALOS/PALSAR radar images to build regional and continental scale mosaics of Sahara. The unique capability of L-band SAR to map subsurface structures in arid areas revealed previously unknown geological features: craters, faults, paleo-rivers. The latter are of particular interest for water resource detection in arid regions.