Recent developments in nanoscale electronics allow current wireless technologies to function in nanoscale environments. Especially due to their incredible electrical and electromagnetic properties, carbon nanotubes are promising physical phenomenon that are used for the realization of a nanoscale communication paradigm. This provides a very large set of new promising applications such as collaborative disease detection with communicating in-vivo nanosensor nodes and distributed chemical attack detection with a network of nanorobots. Hence, one of the most challenging subjects for such applications becomes the realization of nanoscale ad hoc networks. In this article, we define the concept of carbon nanotube-based nanoscale ad hoc networks for future nanotechnology applications. Carbon nanotube-based nanoscale Ad hoc NETworks (CANETs) can be perceived as the down-scaled version of traditional wireless ad hoc networks without downgrading its main functionalities. The objective of this work is to introduce this novel and interdisciplinary research field and highlight major barriers toward its realization.