The intriguing properties of matter which are inherent only at low temperatures led IBM to initiate a low-temperature research program in 1954. The application of some of these properties to circuit components has been recently demonstrated by the use of superconductivity for computer components by D. A. Buck* and by the development of the Solid State Maser by Bell Telephone Laboratories.† This work has spearheaded a serious investigation into the possibility of using components that require low temperatures (below 10°K) in circuits of practical interest. Progress in this area has been greatly facilitated by the development of the Collins Cryostat manufactured by the A. D. Little Company. This has made liquid helium readily available to numerous laboratories.
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