The trend in microelectronics toward printing features 0.25 µm and below has motivated the development of lithography at the 193-nm wavelength of argon fluoride excimer lasers. This technology is in its early stages, but a picture is emerging of its strengths and limitations. The change in wavelength from 248 to 193 nm requires parallel progress in projection systems, optical materials, and photoresist chemistries and processes. This paper reviews the current status of these various topics, as they have been engineered under a multiyear program at MIT Lincoln Laboratory.
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