Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) is a relatively new microscopy technique, capable of high-resolution (5 nm) video-rate imaging of surfaces and interfaces. This opens up the possibility of studying dynamic processes at surfaces, such as thin-film growth, strain relief, etching and adsorption, and phase transitions in real time, in situ, as they occur. The resulting video movies contain an unprecedented amount of information that is amenable to detailed, quantitative analysis. In this paper we discuss the principles of LEEM and its application to problems in science and technology.
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