Skip to Main Content
IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards,
eBooks, and eLearning courses.
Learn more about:
IEEE Xplore subscriptions
Your organization might have access to this article on the publisher's site. To check,
click on this link:http://dx.doi.org/+10.1063/1.1377304
The detection of early failures in electromigration (EM) and the complicated statistical nature of this important reliability phenomenon have been difficult issues to treat in the past. A satisfactory experimental approach for the detection and the statistical analysis of early failures has not yet been established. This is mainly due to the rare occurrence of early failures and difficulties in testing of large sample populations. Furthermore, experimental data on the EM behavior as a function of varying number of failure links are scarce. In this study, a technique utilizing large interconnect arrays in conjunction with the well-known Wheatstone Bridge is presented. Three types of structures with a varying number of Ti/TiN/Al(Cu)/TiN-based interconnects were used, starting from a small unit of five lines in parallel. A serial arrangement of this unit enabled testing of interconnect arrays encompassing 480 possible failure links. In addition, a Wheatstone Bridge-type wiring using four large arrays in each device enabled simultaneous testing of 1920 interconnects. In conjunction with a statistical deconvolution to the single interconnect level, the results indicate that the electromigration failure mechanism studied here follows perfect lognormal behavior down to the four sigma level. The statistical deconvolution procedure is described in detail. Over a temperature range from 155 to 200 °C, a total of more than 75 000 interconnects were tested. None of the samples have shown an indication of early, or alternate, failure mechanisms. The activation energy of the EM mechanism studied here, namely the Cu incubation time, was determined to be Q=1.08±0.05 eV. We surmise that interface diffusion of Cu along the Al(Cu) sidewalls and along the top and bottom refractory layers, coupled with grain boundary diffusion within the interconnects, constitutes the Cu incubation mechanism. © 2001 American Inst- itute of Physics.
A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.