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A microfabricated 2×1 array of active and self-detecting cantilevers is presented for applications in atomic force microscopy (AFM). The integrated deflection sensor is based on a stress sensing metal–oxide–semiconductor transistor. Full custom complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor amplifiers for signal readout are combined on the same chip. A sensor sensitivity of 2.25 mV/nm, or a change in current ΔId/Id=2.8×10-6/nm, was obtained at the final output stage. Three Al–Si thermal bimorph actuators are integrated on each cantilever for self-excitation and feedback actuation. The efficiencies of the heaters are 2.4–4.7 K/mW. In the experimental setup, a maximum displacement of 8 μm was achieved at 45 mW input. A pair of parallel AFM images in the constant height mode, a typical tapping mode image, and a constant force image with 1.3 μm high features have been successfully taken with the array probe. © 2000 American Vacuum Society.
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