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The adsorption and growth of Ti on Si(111)-7×7 surface at room temperature was studied with x-ray standing waves and high energy x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the specimens was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. We observed that at the submonolayer (0.08–0.24 ML) coverage a significant fraction of the metal atoms are coherently located in the near-surface interstitial positions of the Si lattice. For a higher Ti coverage (1.8 ML), the coherently ordered fraction almost vanishes and the surface is covered with three-dimensional islands. The Ti-coverage results are interpreted in terms of an interfacial transition layer containing Ti interstitials below the Si surface at low coverage, and a disordered mixed Ti–Si phase at higher Ti concentration. © 2002 American Vacuum Society.
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films
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