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The early failure issue in electromigration (EM) has been an unresolved subject of study over the last several decades. A satisfying experimental approach for the detection and analysis of early failures has not been established yet. In this study, a technique utilizing large interconnect arrays in conjunction with the well-known Wheatstone Bridge is presented. A total of more than 20 000 interconnects were tested. The results indicate that the EM failure mechanism studied here follows lognormal behavior down to the four sigma level. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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