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We demonstrate a large-area fabrication of hexagonally ordered metal dot arrays with an area density of ∼1011/cm2. We produced 20 nm dots with a 40 nm period by combining block copolymer nanolithography and a trilayer resist technique. A self-assembled spherical-phase block copolymer top layer spontaneously generated the pattern, acting as a template. The pattern was first transferred to a silicon nitride middle layer by reactive ion etch, producing holes. The nitride layer was then used as a mask to further etch into a polyimide bottom layer. The metal dots were produced by an electron beam evaporation followed by a lift-off process. Our method provides a viable route for highly dense nanoscale patterning of different materials on arbitrary surfaces. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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