A method to retrieve the surface emissivity of sea ice at the window channels of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) radiometers in the polar region is presented. The instruments are on the new-generation satellites of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-15, NOAA-16, and NOAA-17). The method assumes hypothetical surfaces with emissivities zero and one and simulates brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere using profiles of atmospheric parameters, e.g., from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model runs, as input for a radiative transfer model. The retrieval of surface emissivity is done by combining simulated brightness temperatures with the satellite-measured brightness temperature. The AMSU window channels differ in surface penetration depths and, thus, in the surface microphysical parameters that they depend on. Lowest layer air temperatures from ECMWF are used to infer temperatures of emitting layers at different frequencies of sea ice. A complete yearly cycle of monthly average emissivities in two selected regions (first- and multiyear ice) is giving insight into the variation of emissivities in various development stages of sea ice.