GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emitting wavelength of 450 nm were grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) fabricated by nanosphere lithography. The crystalline quality of the epitaxial film could be improved by using the NPSS technique. The output power of LED grown on NPSS was 1.3 and 1.11 times higher than those of LEDs grown on conventional and patterned sapphire substrates at the injection current of 20 mA, respectively. The enhancement in output power could be contributed to the efficiently scattering by NPSS. But some voids formed at the GaN/NPSS interface cause a thermal dissipation problem of NPSS LED operated at high injection current.