In this paper, we address the problem of target tracking in a collaborative acoustic sensor network. To cope with the inherent characteristics and constraints of wireless sensor networks, we present a novel target-tracking algorithm with power-aware concerns. The underlying tracking methodology is described as a multiple-sensor tracking/fusion technique based on particle filtering. As discussed in the most recent literature, particle filtering is defined as an emerging Monte Carlo state estimation technique with proven superior performance in many target-tracking applications. More specifically, in our proposed method, each activated sensor transmits the received acoustic intensity and the direction of arrival (DOA) of the target to the sensor fusion center (a dedicated computing and storage platform, such as a microserver). The fusion center uses each received DOA to generate a set of estimations based on the state partition technique, as described later in this paper. In addition, a set of sensor weights is calculated based on the acoustic intensity received by each activated sensor. Next, the weighted sum of the estimates is used to generate the proposal distribution in the particle filter for sensor fusion. This technique renders a more accurate proposal distribution and, hence, yields more precise and robust estimations of the target using fewer samples than those of the traditional bootstrap filter. In addition, since the majority of the signal processing efficiently resides on the fusion center, the computation load at the sensor nodes is limited, which is desirable for power-aware systems. Last, the performance of the new tracking algorithm in various tracking scenarios is thoroughly studied and compared with standard tracking methods. As shown in the theory and demonstrated by our experimental results, the state-partition-based centralized particle filter reliably outperforms the traditional method in all experiments.