The European Union is presently funding collaborative research and development activities in the Sixth Framework Programme (FP 6) that covered the period of 2002-2006. Activities in the communications field have made significant progress toward advanced communication technologies, systems, and services, enabling low cost broadband end-to-end connectivity and seamless mobile and wireless access solutions across a range of heterogeneous network infrastructures. Currently, the European Commission is starting to implement the Seventh Framework Programme (FP 7) that covers the period of 2007-2013. The area of communication technologies is characterized by the main technical objective of ubiquitous and unlimited capacity communication networks. Activities are expected to aim for ubiquitous access over heterogeneous networks - fixed, mobile, wireless, and broadcasting networks - spanning the personal area to the regional and global areas, enabling the seamless delivery of ever higher volumes of data and services.