Assessing the displacement of bony implants is an important topic in arthroplasty, particularly in total hip replacement (THR). The observation of the migration is supposed to provide an insight into the fixation of the implant. Diagnostic standard radiographs of the pelvis are an advantageous data source for this purpose. The previous methods based on these images, however, lack of a thorough consideration of their projective nature. They do, hence, not reach the desired precision, which should lie in the submillimeter range to allow a detection of migration in the first one or two years after implantation. The aim of the work presented here was, therefore, a method for measuring the distance of the artificial hip socket to the bone with an error of less than 0.5 mm. The approach has been on the one hand to define the bone-cup distance measured in the radiograph so that the variability of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters at exposure has a minimal impact. On the other, specialized matching techniques are applied in order to optimize the localization of the necessary bony landmarks and the cup in the X-ray image. The coordinates of the bony landmarks are determined by means of a template matching algorithm. The position of the implant is estimated by intensity-based registration using the cup's CAD-model. The method was validated theoretically, experimentally, and clinically. In the clinical radiographs, the standard deviation of the migration measurements resulted to be 0.28 mm when using only natural bony landmarks. The implantation of a bony marker was found to increase the precision to a standard deviation of 0.20 mm. The interobserver variability in the two cases was estimated to be 0.11 mm and 0.04 mm.