A framework is presented that allows a number of known results relating feedback equalization, linear prediction, and mutual information to be easily understood. A lossless, additive decomposition of mutual information in a general class of Gaussian channels is introduced and shown to produce an information-preserving canonical decision-feedback receiver. The approach is applied to intersymbol interference (ISI) channels to derive the well-known minimum mean-square error (MMSE) decision-feedback equalizer (DFE). When applied to the synchronous code-division multiple-access (CDMA) channel, the result is the MMSE (or signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) maximizing) decision-feedback detector, which is shown to achieve the channel sum-capacity at the vertices of the capacity region. Finally, in the case of the asynchronous CDMA channel we are able to give new connections between information theory, decision-feedback receivers, and structured factorizations of multivariate spectra.