This paper proposes a closed-form solution for designing variable one-dimensional (1-D) finite-impulse-response (FIR) digital filters with simultaneously tunable magnitude and tunable fractional phase-delay responses. First, each coefficient of a variable FIR filter is expressed as a two-dimensional (2-D) polynomial of a pair of parameters called spectral parameters; one is for independently tuning the cutoff frequency of the magnitude response, and the other is for independently tuning fractional phase-delay. Then, the closed-form error function between the desired and actual variable frequency responses is derived without discretizing any design parameters such as the frequency and the two spectral parameters. Finally, the optimal solution for the 2-D polynomial coefficients can be easily determined through minimizing the closed-form error function. We also show that the resulting variable FIR filter can be efficiently implemented by generalizing Farrow structure to our two-parameter case. The generalized Farrow structure requires only a small number of multiplications and additions for obtaining any new frequency characteristic, which is particularly suitable for high-speed tuning.