The Internet and related technologies have seen tremendous growth in distributed applications such as medicine, education, e-commerce, and digital libraries. As demand increases for online content and integrated, automated services, various applications employ Web services technology for document exchange among data repositories. Web services provide a mechanism to expose data and functionality using standard protocols, and hence to integrate many features that enhance Web applications. XML, a well-established text format, is playing an increasingly important role in supporting Web services. XML separates data from style and format definition and allows uniform representation, interchange, sharing, and dissemination of information content over the Internet. XML and Web services provide a simplified application integration framework that drives demand for models that support secure information interchange. Providing document security in XML-based Web services requires access control models that offer specific capabilities. Our XML-based access control specification language addresses a new set of challenges that traditional security models do not address.