This article describes the current evolution of QoS architectures, mechanisms, and protocols in the Internet, as it is ongoing in the framework of the European Union funded research projects on premium IP networks. A short review of the proposed standard approaches to QoS (e.g., differentiated services, integrated services, and label switching technologies) is given. Then we focus on the state-of-the-art architectures, mainly based on DiffServ concepts. Several issues arise when trying to implement these architectures in the real world: QoS aspects, network monitoring of the offered QoS, and end-user control of received QoS. The article then discusses the existing results and the current direction of European research and development in these areas.