This paper presents measurements of several properties of Nd:YAlO3useful in the design of laser devices. Values for the gains, cross sections, and saturation parameter of the transitions are presented for principal axis polarizations. Thermal focal lengths, spherical aberration, and astigmatism for , and -axis rods in in diameter and 3 in long are shown as a function of input power. Pumping efficiencies with krypton and xenon lamps are compared for Nd:YAG, Nd:Cr:YAlO3, and Nd: YAlO3both in the CW and flash-pumped modes. Finally, the effects of varying the Nd concentration in YAlO3from 0.4 to 1.15 percent are discussed.