We introduce a rotational invariant feature set for texture segmentation and classification, based on an extension of fractal dimension (FD) features. The FD extracts roughness information from images considering all available scales at once. In this work, a single scale is considered at a time so that textures with scale-dependent properties are satisfactorily characterized. Single-scale features are combined with multiple-scale features for a more complete textural representation. Wavelets are employed for the computation of single- and multiple-scale roughness features because of their ability to extract information at different resolutions. Features are extracted in multiple directions using directional wavelets, and the feature vector is finally transformed to a rotational invariant feature vector that retains the texture directional information. An iterative K-means scheme is used for segmentation, and a simplified form of a Bayesian classifier is used for classification. The use of the roughness feature set results in high-quality segmentation performance. Furthermore, it is shown that the roughness feature set exhibits a higher classification rate than other feature vectors presented in this work. The feature set retains the important properties of FD-based features, namely insensitivity to absolute illumination and contrast.