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    Hf-Based High-k Dielectrics:Process Development, Performance Characterization, and Reliability

    Kim, Y. ; Lee, J.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00005ED1V01Y200508SSM001
    Copyright Year: 2006

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    In this work, the reliability of HfO2 (hafnium oxide) with poly gate and dual metal gate electrode (Ru–Ta alloy, Ru) was investigated. Hard breakdown and soft breakdown, particularly the Weibull slopes, were studied under constant voltage stress. Dynamic stressing has also been used. It was found that the combination of trapping and detrapping contributed to the enhancement of the projected lifetime. The results from the polarity dependence studies showed that the substrate injection exhibited a shorter projected lifetime and worse soft breakdown behavior, compared to the gate injection. The origin of soft breakdown (first breakdown) was studied and the results suggested that the soft breakdown may be due to one layer breakdown in the bilayer structure (HfO2/SiO2: 4 nm/4 nm). Low Weibull slope was in part attributed to the lower barrier height of HfO2 at the interface layer. Interface layer optimization was conducted in terms of mobility, swing, and short channel effect using d ep submicron MOSFET devices. View full abstract»

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    Fundamentals of Plastics Thermoforming

    Klein, P.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00184ED1V01Y200904MRE001
    Copyright Year: 2009

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    The process of heating and reshaping plastics sheet and film materials has been in use since the beginning of the plastics industry. This process is known as thermoforming. Today this process is used for industrial products including signage, housings, and hot tubs. It also produces much of the packaging in use today including blister packs, egg cartons, and food storage containers. This process has many advantages over other methods of producing these products, but it has some limitations. This book has a twofold purpose. It is designed to be used as a text book for a course on thermoforming. It is also intended to be an application guide for professionals in the field of thermoforming including manufacturing, process and quality engineers, and managers. This book is focused on process application rather than theory. It refers to real products and processes with the intent of understanding the real issues faced in this industry. In addition to materials and processes, part and tool d sign are covered. Quality control is critical to any operation and this is also covered in this text. Two areas of focus in today's industry include Lean operations and environmental issues. Both of these topics are also included. Table of Contents: Introduction / Plastics Materials / Thermoforming Process Overview / The Forming Process / Part Design Mold / Tool Design / Quality Control Issues / Lean Operations / Environmental Issues View full abstract»

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    Negative Quantum Channels:An Introduction to Quantum Maps that are Not Completely Positive

    McCracken, J.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00583ED1V01Y201406QMC007
    Copyright Year: 2014

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This book is a brief introduction to negative quantum channels, i.e., linear, trace-preserving (and consistent) quantum maps that are not completely positive. The flat and sharp operators are introduced and explained. Complete positivity is presented as a mathematical property, but it is argued that complete positivity is not a physical requirement of all quantum operations. Negativity, a measure of the lack of complete positivity, is proposed as a tool for empirically testing complete positivity assumptions. Table of Contents: Preface / Acknowledgments / Introduction and Definition of Terms / Tomography / Non-Positive Reduced Dynamics / Complete Positivity / Physical Motivation of Complete Positivity / Measures of Complete Positivity / Negative Channels / Negative Climates with Diagonal Composite Dynamics / Rabi Channels / Physical Motivations for Sharp Operations / Negative Qubit Channel Examples with Multi-Qubit Baths / Proposed Experimental Demonstration of Negativity / Implicatio s of Negative Channels / Uses for Negative Channels / Conclusions / Bibliography / Author's Biography View full abstract»

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    Optical Interconnects

    Chen, R. ; Choi, C.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00029ED1V01Y200605SSM002
    Copyright Year: 2006

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical interconnects, many stumbling blocks need to be addressed such as thin-film transmitter and detector, thermal management, process compatibility, reliability, cost effective fabrication process, and easy integration. The material presented eventually will relieve such concerns and make the integration of optical interconnection highly feasible. The hybrid integration of the optical interconnectio layer and electrical layers is ongoing. View full abstract»

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    Transient Electro-Thermal Modeling of Bipolar Power Semiconductor Devices

    Gachovska, T. ; Hudgins, J. ; Du, B. ; Santi, E.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00547ED1V01Y201311PEL006
    Copyright Year: 2013

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This book presents physics-based electro-thermal models of bipolar power semiconductor devices including their packages, and describes their implementation in MATLAB and Simulink. It is a continuation of our first book Modeling of Bipolar Power Semiconductor Devices. The device electrical models are developed by subdividing the devices into different regions and the operations in each region, along with the interactions at the interfaces, are analyzed using the basic semiconductor physics equations that govern device behavior. The Fourier series solution is used to solve the ambipolar diffusion equation in the lightly doped drift region of the devices. In addition to the external electrical characteristics, internal physical and electrical information, such as junction voltages and carrier distribution in different regions of the device, can be obtained using the models. The instantaneous dissipated power, calculated using the electrical device models, serves as input to the thermal m del (RC network with constant and nonconstant thermal resistance and thermal heat capacity, or Fourier thermal model) of the entire module or package, which computes the junction temperature of the device. Once an updated junction temperature is calculated, the temperature-dependent semiconductor material parameters are re-calculated and used with the device electrical model in the next time-step of the simulation. The physics-based electro-thermal models can be used for optimizing device and package design and also for validating extracted parameters of the devices. The thermal model can be used alone for monitoring the junction temperature of a power semiconductor device, and the resulting simulation results used as an indicator of the health and reliability of the semiconductor power device. View full abstract»

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    Game Theory for Wireless Engineers

    MacKenzie, A. ; DaSilva, L.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00014ED1V01Y200508COM001
    Copyright Year: 2006

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    The application of mathematical analysis to wireless networks has met with limited success, due to the complexity of mobility and traffic models, coupled with the dynamic topology and the unpredictability of link quality that characterize such networks. The ability to model individual, independent decision makers whose actions potentially affect all other decision makers makes game theory particularly attractive to analyze the performance of ad hoc networks. Game theory is a field of applied mathematics that describes and analyzes interactive decision situations. It consists of a set of analytical tools that predict the outcome of complex interactions among rational entities, where rationality demands a strict adherence to a strategy based on perceived or measured results. In the early to mid-1990's, game theory was applied to networking problems including flow control, congestion control, routing and pricing of Internet services. More recently, there has been growing interest in ado ting game-theoretic methods to model today's leading communications and networking issues, including power control and resource sharing in wireless and peer-to-peer networks. This work presents fundamental results in game theory and their application to wireless communications and networking. We discuss normal-form, repeated, and Markov games with examples selected from the literature. We also describe ways in which learning can be modeled in game theory, with direct applications to the emerging field of cognitive radio. Finally, we discuss challenges and limitations in the application of game theory to the analysis of wireless systems. We do not assume familiarity with game theory. We introduce major game theoretic models and discuss applications of game theory including medium access, routing, energy-efficient protocols, and others. We seek to provide the reader with a foundational understanding of the current research on game theory applied to wireless communications and networkin . View full abstract»

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    Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Quantum Annealing:Theory and Practice

    McGeoch, C.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00585ED1V01Y201407QMC008
    Copyright Year: 2014

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a novel computing platform designed to solve NP-hard optimization problems. Starting with a 16-qubit prototype announced in 2007, the company has launched and sold increasingly larger models: the 128-qubit D-Wave One system was announced in 2010 and the 512-qubit D-Wave Two system arrived on the scene in 2013. A 1,000-qubit model is expected to be available in 2014. This monograph presents an introduc ory overview of this unusual and rapidly developing approach to computation. We start with a survey of basic principles of quantum computation and what is known about the AQC model and the QA algorithm paradigm. Next we review the D-Wave technology stack and discuss some challenges to building and using quantum computing systems at a commercial scale. The last chapter reviews some experimental efforts to understand the properties and capabilities of these unusual platforms. The discussion throughout is aimed at an audience of computer scientists with little background in quantum computation or in physics. View full abstract»

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