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    The evolution of robotics research

    Garcia, E. ; Jimenez, M.A. ; De Santos, P.G. ; Armada, M.
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 14 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2007.339608
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 90 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This article surveys traditional research topics in industrial robotics and mobile robotics and then expands on new trends in robotics research that focus more on the interaction between human and robot. The new trends in robotics research have been denominated service robotics because of their general goal of getting robots closer to human social needs, and this article surveys research on service robotics such as medical robotics, rehabilitation robotics, underwater robotics, field robotics, construction robotics and humanoid robotics. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the evolution of research topics in robotics from classical motion control for industrial robots to modern intelligent control techniques and social learning paradigms, among other aspects. View full abstract»

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    Morphogenetic Robotics: An Emerging New Field in Developmental Robotics

    Yaochu Jin ; Yan Meng
    Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 41 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TSMCC.2010.2057424
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 145 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (9)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Developmental robotics is also known as epigenetic robotics. We propose in this paper that there is one substantial difference between developmental robotics and epigenetic robotics, since epigenetic robotics concentrates primarily on modeling the development of cognitive elements of living systems in robotic systems, such as language, emotion, and social skills, while developmental robotics should also cover the modeling of neural and morphological development in single- and multirobot systems. With the recent rapid advances in evolutionary developmental biology and systems biology, increasing genetic and cellular principles underlying biological morphogenesis have been revealed. These principles are helpful not only in understanding biological development, but also in designing self-organizing, self-reconfigurable, and self-repairable engineered systems. In this paper, we propose morphogenetic robotics, an emerging new field in developmental robotics, is an important part of developmental robotics in addition to epigenetic robotics. By morphogenetic robotics, we mean a class of methodologies in robotics for designing self-organizing, self-reconfigurable, and self-repairable single- or multirobot systems, using genetic and cellular mechanisms governing biological morphogenesis. We categorize these methodologies into three areas, namely, morphogenetic swarm robotic systems, morphogenetic modular robots, and morphogenetic body and brain design for robots. Examples are provided for each of the three areas to illustrate the main ideas underlying the morphogenetic approaches to robotics. View full abstract»

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    What Is a Robot?: Defining Robotics

    Mataric, M.
    The Robotics Primer

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Copyright Year: 2007

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    The Robotics Primer offers a broadly accessible introduction to robotics for students at pre-university and university levels, robot hobbyists, and anyone interested in this burgeoning field. The text takes the reader from the most basic concepts (including perception and movement) to the most novel and sophisticated applications and topics (humanoids, shape-shifting robots, space robotics), with an emphasis on what it takes to create autonomous intelligent robot behavior. The core concepts of robotics are carried through from fundamental definitions to more complex explanations, all presented in an engaging, conversational style that will appeal to readers of different backgrounds. The Robotics Primer covers such topics as the definition of robotics, the history of robotics ("Where do Robots Come From?"), robot components, locomotion, manipulation, sensors, control, control architectures, representation, behavior ("Making Your Robot Behave"), navigation, group robotics, learning, and the future of robotics (and its ethical implications). To encourage further engagement, experimentation, and course and lesson design, The Robotics Primer is accompanied by a free robot programming exercise workbook that implements many of the ideas on the book on iRobot platforms. The Robotics Primer is unique as a principled, pedagogical treatment of the topic that is accessible to a broad audience; the only prerequisites are curiosity and attention. It can be used effectively in an educational setting or more informally for self-instruction. The Robotics Primer is a springboard for readers of all backgrounds--including students taking robotics as an elective outside the major, graduate students preparing to specialize in robotics, and K-12 teachers who bring robotics into their classroo ms.Maja J Mataric [acute accent over c] is Professor of Computer Science and Neuroscience and Director of the Center for Robotics and Embedded Systems at the University of Southern California, where she is also Codirector of the Robotics Research Lab and Senior Associate Dean for research in the Viterbi School of Engineering. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    2003 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Cat. No.03CH37422)


    Robotics and Automation, 2003. Proceedings. ICRA '03. IEEE International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/ROBOT.2003.1241814
    Publication Year: 2003

    IEEE Conference Publications

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    The Robotics Community [IFRR Update]

    Khatib, O. ; Christensen, H.
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 17 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2010.935803
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 11 - 12

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Design-Oriented Enhanced Robotics Curriculum

    Yilmaz, M. ; Ozcelik, S. ; Yilmazer, N. ; Nekovei, R.
    Education, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 56 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TE.2012.2220775
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 137 - 144

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper presents an innovative two-course, laboratory-based, and design-oriented robotics educational model. The robotics curriculum exposed senior-level undergraduate students to major robotics concepts, and enhanced the student learning experience in hybrid learning environments by incorporating the IEEE Region-5 annual robotics competition with open-ended design challenges, by establishing a robotics club, and by implementing a K-12 mentorship program. A four-faculty team developed two elective courses in which the theoretical concepts underlying the robotics design competition topics were supported with corresponding laboratory activities. Students took the courses sequentially. They were formed into diverse teams, whose performance was assessed via weekly team presentations and participation in an outreach day. The best robot design teams participated in the IEEE Region-5 competitions. All students participated in a service-learning activity, acting as mentors during local K-12 robotics competitions while enhancing their own robotics comprehension. The robotics curriculum's two-year evaluation results illustrate the consistent efficacy of the curriculum during the project duration, indicating a successful robotics educational model for other academic institutions to follow. View full abstract»

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    Robotics in medicine

    Dario, P. ; Guglielmelli, E. ; Allotta, B.
    Intelligent Robots and Systems '94. 'Advanced Robotic Systems and the Real World', IROS '94. Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ/GI International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.1994.407554
    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 739 - 752 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper reports the current state-of-the-art in medical robotics. Three general areas of advanced robotics are identified: macro robotics, micro robotics and bio-robotics. Macro robotics include the development of robots, wheelchairs, manipulators for rehabilitation as well as new more powerful tools and techniques for surgery. Micro robotics could contribute to the field of minimally invasive surgery as well as to the development of a new generation of miniaturised mechatronic tools for conventional surgery. Bio-robotics deals with the problems of modelling and simulating biological systems in order to provide a better understanding of human physiology. According to this classification, a review on the most important past and ongoing research projects in the field is reported. Some commercial products already appeared on the marker are also mentioned, and a brief analysis of the economical potentialities of robotics in medicine is presented View full abstract»

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    Proceedings 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation. Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation for the New Millennium (Cat. No.03EX694)


    Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 2003. Proceedings. 2003 IEEE International Symposium on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/CIRA.2003.1222051
    Publication Year: 2003

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The following topics are dealt with: reinforcement learning; neural networks and its applications; tele-existence; fuzzy control for robots; robot assisted therapy and activity; pet-type robot for aged people's welfare; rehabilitation support system; human-robot interaction; emergence of adaptive behavior, behavior based architecture; new trends in robotics; hybrid intelligent systems in robotics; co-creation system; cooperative mobile robots; evolutionary computation; robot design; micro robot; computational intelligence in industrial applications; vision-based robotics; virtual reality; navigation system; artificial intelligence and application; fuzzy pattern recognition; intelligent systems and nonlinear control; dynamic path planning; collision detection; evolutionary robotics; modular robotics; virtual environment; global localization; pattern recognition by neural networks and evolutionary algorithms; digital human; social learning; biologically inspired robotics; manipulator analysis; manipulator control; learning from agent, human, and world; distributed autonomous systems; future manufacturing; bio-mimetric robotics; computer vision and pattern recognition; fuzzy neural network for modeling; fuzzy neural network for control; adaptive control; agent-based socio-economic simulation; intelligent method for industrial and robotics application; multi-agent systems; advanced fuzzy control; image recognition and reconstruction; sensor fusion. View full abstract»

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    Robotics for medical applications

    Dario, P. ; Guglielmelli, E. ; Allotta, B. ; Carrozza, M.C.
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 3 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/100.540149
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 44 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (44)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The authors review the most important past and ongoing research projects in macro-robotics, micro-robotics and bio-robotics, three general areas of robotics which have the potential to provide significant improvements to the state of the art of medical technology. A brief analysis of the economic potentialities of robotics in medicine is also provided View full abstract»

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    Experiences in Developing an Experimental Robotics Course Program for Undergraduate Education

    Seul Jung
    Education, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 56 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TE.2012.2213601
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 129 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    An interdisciplinary undergraduate-level robotics course offers students the chance to integrate their engineering knowledge learned throughout their college years by building a robotic system. Robotics is thus a core course in system and control-related engineering education. This paper summarizes the experience of developing robotics courses presented in the literature and shares the author's experiences through many years of teaching and developing robotics courses with other educators in the Department of Mechatronics, Chungnam National University (CNU), Daejeon, Korea. First, the CNU robotics course described here has classroom and laboratory sections. In class, students learn the theories behind robotics and practice them by performing simulation studies. In parallel, students perform robotics exercises in the laboratory. Second, the lab exercises are focused on hands-on experiments on robot systems; these include an experimental kit, LEGO robots, humanoid robots, industrial robots, and home service robots. Third, competition-based learning is explored by assigning a class project to develop a boxing robot, which covers both manipulation and mobility. Finally, the course introduces robotics-associated outreach activities. The analysis of several years of student evaluation is presented. View full abstract»

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    Pioneering the personal robotics industry

    Nickerson, R.
    Technologies for Practical Robot Applications, 2009. TePRA 2009. IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/TEPRA.2009.5339625
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 179 - 185
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The world has yet to see an affordable commercial robot that can do more than one distinguishable task. In this paper I investigate the status of the home robotics industry. The work attempts to gauge when home robotics will become a successful norm. In my research, I interviewed leaders in the robotics industry. Their responses lead me to believe that the majority of robotics companies are isolated and independent. Where home robotics has been in the past shows missed opportunities while where it is going holds uncertain outcomes. A fact this paper confronts is often left undiscussed: the American government funds military robotics more than any other commercial entity. However, assistive commercial robotics is not within the scope of government funding. While this government support is also seen with Japan, the focus is on assistive technology rather than military. Robotics companies, venture capitalists, the United States government and the consumer are all entwined in the fate of commercial assistive home robotics. If unseen opportunities aren't utilized soon, Japan will be in place to dominate the home robotics market, leaving America behind. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Latin American Robotics Council [Regional]

    Ruiz-del-Solar, J. ; Weitzenfeld, A.
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 16 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2008.931645
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 115 - 116

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Introducing students grades 6–12 to expressive robotics

    Lu, D.V. ; Mead, R.
    Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 2012 7th ACM/IEEE International Conference on

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 411

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Every year, tens of thousands of middle school and high school students participate in robotics competitions, such as Botball, FIRST, and VEX. This provides them with an excellent introduction to the ins and outs of building robots and programming them to autonomously accomplish specific tasks. However, the rules of many of these competitions often limit or prohibit human interaction with the robots. As a result, students are not exposed to and are, thus, not encouraged to think about human-robot interaction (HRI) and its potential impacts on society. To start getting a new generation of students thinking about HRI, a workshop was held entitled “Expressive Robotics: Motion and Emotion” at the 2011 Global Conference on Educational Robotics. The focus of the workshop was to teach the students how to program robots to express emotion and intent just through the robot's physical actions. The robot used by each participating group was not unlike the ones they used in competitions: an iRobot Create base provided a mobile platform, upon which stood a three degree-of-freedom arm, serving as an articulated spine and head. The students were then tasked with implementing a simple keyframe animation system to control the robot's limited degrees of freedom, which they could then modify to illustrate certain principles from theatre and animation. They used their animation system to tell a story purely through robot motion and interactions with props. The exposure to sociable robotics has the potential to increase interest and self-efficacy of underrepresented student populations, particularly girls, in STEM-related activities. View full abstract»

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    Teaching K-12 students robotics programming in collaboration with the robotics club

    Shouling He ; Maldonado, J. ; Uquillas, A. ; Cetoute, T.
    Integrated STEM Education Conference (ISEC), 2014 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ISECon.2014.6891023
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    We present the result of a study in which a summer K-12 robotics course has been taught by a college professor and three student members from the Vaughn College's Robotics Club. Our aim was to provide an enjoyable teaching and learning environment similar to a "Big Brothers" program so that high school students can learn robotics programming more efficiently. We present details on the approach we have taken as well as K-12 student feedback made through the comments on the course survey. Finally, we discuss the future works that may be able to improve the teaching approach. The participants for the summer robotics course were students ranging from junior high school to senior high school. Prior to attending the summer program, most of the students did not have experience regarding robotics and generally did not know how to build and program a robot. After completing the five-week summer program, their interests in robotics had a dramatic increase. Most students were excited about coming back next summer to gain a more advanced understanding about robotics. View full abstract»

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    Robotics as a social technology

    Hirai, S.
    Mechatronics and Automation, 2009. ICMA 2009. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICMA.2009.5246471
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): xl - xli

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. In the last century, R&D in robotics had been mainly concentrated on industrial robot and its related applications. In the 21 century R&D activities in robotics have been continuously high in Japan for the first decade. Representatively, METI, Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, successively launched R&D projects in robot area. Topics of the projects cover from fundamental technology to industrial/commercial applications. Recently topics are rather shifted to service application including home usage. It is very interesting fact that such diversity in R&D is specific in robotics. This may be contributed to unique and different feature of robotics in comparison with other engineering fields. In short robotics is integration of all the fields from both science and engineering. To construct a robot we need knowledge of mathematics, physics, electronics, control theory, computer science and more. To utilize robots we directly need knowledge of objective application field. Thus essence of robotics is to integrate all the science and technology to produce physical/mechanical systems to be utilized in factory, business and home. Since 21th century application field of robotics largely shifted to daily and home-oriented topics. Robotics is required to solve such human-oriented issues and produce novel machines, equipments, systems utilized for them. Robotics will become a social technology in addition to the industrial technology in the future. View full abstract»

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    Achievements in space robotics

    Kazuya Yoshida,
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 16 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2009.934818
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 20 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Outer space is an ultimate field for the application of robotics technology. As outer space is a harsh environment with extreme temperatures, vacuum, radiation, gravity, and great distances, human access is very difficult and hazardous and is therefore limited. To assist human activities in space for constructing and maintaining space modules and structures, robotic manipulators have been playing essential roles in orbital operations. Moreover, expanding the horizons of exploration beyond the areas of human access, robots that land and travel on planetary surfaces have been greatly contributing to our knowledge of the solar system. New challenges are expected in the future. This article consists of three parts. In the first part, the achievements of orbital robotics technology in the last decade are reviewed, highlighting the Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-VII) and Orbital Express flight demonstrations. In the second part, some of the selected topics of planetary robotics from the field robotics research point of view are described. Recent achievements in the author's laboratory are added as an illustrative example. Finally, technological challenges to asteroid robotics are discussed. When designing a robot to explore the surface of an asteroid, microgravity raises an interesting problem of how to stick and move on the surface. Some ideas to address these questions are introduced. View full abstract»

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    The Creation and Application of a Simulator in Educational Robotics Classes

    Fernandes, C. ; Thomaz, S. ; Pitta, R. ; Goncalves, L.M.
    Robotics Symposium and Competition (LARS/LARC), 2013 Latin American

    DOI: 10.1109/LARS.2013.73
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 159 - 164

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Educational robotics classes consist of the use of robots in classes that involve interdisciplinary or social themes, creating innovative learning environments involving the use of such technology. In the usually known approach, educational robotics uses robotics kits. We developed a robotic simulator, called S-Educ, which can be used as an alternative or in association with robotics kits in classes involving the use of robotics. Simulators are not replacements of robotics kits, but an alternative for cases where the kits can not be used or they are not appropriate. Tests were carried out to analyze the use of the simulator, obtaining good results on the application of this simulator in educational robotics classes. View full abstract»

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    Virtual Robotic Testbeds: A Foundation for e-Robotics in Space, in Industry - And in the Woods

    Rossmann, J. ; Schluse, M.
    Developments in E-systems Engineering (DeSE), 2011

    DOI: 10.1109/DeSE.2011.101
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 496 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In recent years, virtual reality has emerged as a key technology for improving and streamlining design, programming, manufacturing and training processes. Based on experiences in the fields of space robotics, industrial manufacturing, multi-physics and virtual prototyping, "virtual testbeds" are currently being designed and implemented. Experience now shows that virtual testbeds also have a high potential to serve as the foundation for e-Robotics as robotics developed to become a computationally intensive science that is best carried out in a collaborative environment and preferably in a highly distributed network environment. So far, the robotics community does not appear to already appreciate the advantages of principles of e-Science being applied to robotics, probably because most robotics applications so far are being built bottom up and are still mostly dedicated to specific problems, e.g. in the domain of controller development. But when it comes to building larger applications like e.g. a space robot mission, planetary exploration rovers, au-tonomous working machines, advanced vehicle assistant systems etc., the demand for highly realistic and collaborative simulation environment increases. The developments of "virtual testbeds" to be presented in this paper describe the symbiotic integration of advanced simulation techniques with distributed computing ca-pabilities and advanced man-machine interaction metaphors to pave the way for e-Robotics with applications not only in space but also in factories, on construction sites - and in the woods. View full abstract»

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    Robotics in Academic Medical Engineering Education

    Jeschke, S. ; Volimer, U. ; Wilke, M. ; Kato, A.
    System Integration, 2008 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SI.2008.4770426
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 54 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Robotics plays a very important role in medical engineering. Thus, it is necessary for students of medical engineering to acquire knowledge on robotics during their studies. Besides teaching expertise, a robotics project provides many possibilities for students to acquire additional qualifications for their career. Robotics is an inter- and cross-disciplinary field and hence holds a unique role among the technical disciplines. Computer science contributes with areas such as software-engineering and artificial intelligence. The design of the hardware involves classical mechanical and electrical engineering problems. As applications of robotics are far reaching, the scope of problems is broadened to fields beyond the technological ones. Scientific and engineering methodologies can be taught in a hands-on training at an early stage of the students' academic education. The work on a robotics project in a small team gives the students a possibility to develop their social and team skills. The popularity of robots based on literature and movies, added, robotics is ideally suited as the object of a project-oriented course for students of medical engineering. View full abstract»

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    Formulation of a U.S. National Strategy for Robotics [Industrial Activities]

    Christensen, H.I.
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 19 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2012.2193931
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 10 - 14

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In the United States, there has been a diverse set of robotics programs funded by different agencies 2007. Formulation of a road map for robotics in the United States to establish the basis for a coordinated strategy has been discussed. Four different workshops have been arranged: (1) manufacturing and logistics, (2) health-care and medical robotics, (3) service robotics, and (4) emerging technologies. View full abstract»

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    Socially assistive robotics [Grand Challenges of Robotics]

    Tapus, A. ; Mataric, M.J. ; Scasselati, B.
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 14 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2007.339605
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 35 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (22)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Socially intelligent robotics is the pursuit of creating robots capable of exhibiting natural-appearing social qualities. Beyond the basic capabilities of moving and acting autonomously, the field has focused on the use of the robot's physical embodiment to communicate and interact with users in a social and engaging manner. One of its components, socially assistive robotics, focuses on helping human users through social rather than physical interaction. Early results already demonstrate the promises of socially assistive robotics, a new interdisciplinary research area with large horizons of fascinating and much needed research. Even as socially assistive robotic technology is still in its early stages of development, the next decade promises systems that will be used in hospitals, schools, and homes in therapeutic programs that monitor, encourage, and assist their users. This is an important time in the development of the field, when the board technical community and the beneficiary populations must work together to shape the field toward its intended impact on improved human quality of life View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Springer Handbook of Robotics (B. Siciliano and O. Khatib; 2008) [Book Review]

    Bekey, G.A.
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 15 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2008.928399
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 110

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    RobotUI - A software architecture for modular robotics user interface frameworks

    Poppa, F. ; Zimmer, U.
    Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2012.6385526
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2571 - 2576

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Modern robotics frameworks are based on modular architectures that enable them to cope with the complexity and diversity of today's robotics applications. The encapsulation of the framework modules is the key to their reuse in various robotics scenarios. Model-driven approaches further simplify the reuse of already implemented and tested modules by enabling developers to model their applications on a higher abstraction level incorporating existing modules [1]. Unfortunately, these features are only present for the implementation of the robot behavior itself, but not for the accompanying user interfaces (UIs). The contributions of this paper are threefold: In a first step we introduce the idea of dedicated robotics UI frameworks which allow the reuse of UIs across robotics frameworks. The paper then presents an architecture for flexible and versatile UI frameworks for robotics applications by investigating and specifying the necessary features for such systems on a platform and programming language independent basis. The introduced ROBOTUI architecture fosters code reuse on the level of self-contained UI modules and enables the user to build new robotics related UIs based on existing UI building blocks. Finally, we present an implementation of the proposed architecture that demonstrates the advantages of a dedicated UI framework and the high level of code reuse achieved by implementing the modular ROBOTUI architecture. View full abstract»

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    Managing extensibility and maintainability of industrial robotics software

    Hoffmann, A. ; Angerer, A. ; Schierl, A. ; Vistein, M. ; Reif, W.
    Advanced Robotics (ICAR), 2013 16th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICAR.2013.6766561
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 7

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As neither the set of robotics devices nor the operations they can execute is fixed, a software framework for robotics should be extensible. Moreover, as the environment the robots work in changes, the application controlling them must be easily adaptable to changing requirements. When this can be achieved at run-time, it leads to a continuous evolution of robotics software. This paper presents an object-oriented software framework, the Java-based Robotics API, that facilitates extensibility with code reuse. By integrating the framework into the dynamic module system OSGi, it is possible to continuously evolve a robotics application (including its real-time capable parts). View full abstract»

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    Reviewing the issues of robotic self-X

    Bekey, G. ; Junku Yuh
    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 14 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/M-RA.2007.905746
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 6 - 7

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This article presents the gist of an international study on the status of robotics by the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC, http://wtec.org/roborics). The study was conducted in 2004-2005 with grants from the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and with additional funding from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. The study included a workshop on the status of robotics research in the United States and visits to over 50 laboratories in Japan, South Korea, and Western Europe, as well as a virtual site visit to Australia. It was found that a number of countries allocate significantly larger levels of funding for civil sector robotics with national-level coordination than those in the United States. The status of the various aspects of robotics in the countries studied is summarized in Tables 1 and 2. The study concluded that robotics is an extremely dynamic field with strong activity in all the countries visited and that no single country leads in all the aspects of robotics. With thriving advancement in robotics technology along with other emerging technologies such as information technology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, robotics will contribute toward increasing opportunities for economic growth and greatly affect future generations with substantial social and economic impact. View full abstract»

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