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    Inverse kinematics analysis trajectory planning for a robot arm

    Guo-Shing Huang ; Chiou-Kou Tung ; Hsiung-Cheng Lin ; Shun-Hui Hsiao
    Control Conference (ASCC), 2011 8th Asian

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 965 - 970
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a 6-DOF robot arm system, proposed a strategy for solving the inverse kinematics equations, using the robot arm assembled by seven AI servos (RX-64), set up robot's coordinate system with the D-H notation method. The motion trajectory of a robot arm is calculated using the geometric analysis. It was considered as the length of robot arm and motion angle in the whole system. To adjust and drive the robot arm to the coordinates of folder and place between ones and the target object, make the angle of the shaft position can accurately locate the direction for all axes of the robot arm and obtain the optimal motion path. Finally, Matlab software was used to verify and compare the results of the inverse kinematics equations analysis with the experimental results. Under the experimental test, we position the object using the camera which was installed on robot arm, according to the attitude of the object, control the robot arm through the analysis result of inverse kinematics equation in order to make the robot arm achieve the action of exact grasping object. Finally, the robot arm system will be used on the meal service robot to serve for guests. View full abstract»

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    A hybrid control policy of robot arm motion for assistive robots

    Hsien-I Lin ; Chi-Li Chen
    Information and Automation (ICIA), 2011 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICINFA.2011.5948981
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 163 - 168

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Tele-operated robotics has been widely-used to manipulate heavy or hazardous objects in an unknown or dangerous environment. Nowadays, it is adopted in assistive robots to help the elderly in accomplishing household tasks. This paper proposes a hybrid control policy of robot arm motion to semi-automatically control a remote robot arm, which differs from previous work in its hybrid control policy. The motivations of the proposed hybrid control policy are rooted from (1) the safeness in controlling a robot arm in an uncertain environment by tele-operating the robot far from the target position; (2) the quickness in automatically controlling the robot arm close to the target position. By doing this, the robot arm is manipulated to quickly and safely reach to the target position. The proposed hybrid control policy tele-operates a robot by utilizing the joint angles of a human arm to remotely control the robot arm posture where the human joint angles are captured by the proposed motion capture method. To validate the proposed method, we conducted the experimental work on an 6 degree-of-freedom humanoid robot arm. The results showed that the human was able to safely and quickly reach to the manipulative objects by the proposed hybrid control policy of robot arm motion. View full abstract»

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    The development of six D.O.F. robot arm for intelligent robot

    Jie-Tong Zou ; Des-Hun Tu
    Control Conference (ASCC), 2011 8th Asian

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 976 - 981

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The objective of this paper is to develop a six D.O.F robot arm for an intelligent robot. As for the shoulder part, the harmonic drive, which has some advantages (such as zero backlash, small volume, and high reduction ratio), was used to ensure the weight of the whole arm could be supported. The kinematic equations of the robot arm have been verified in this paper. As for the links of a robot arm, the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) coordinate transformation method is generally used. The six axes data of the robot arm can be obtained from the Inverse Kinematics analysis. Through the Simulink function of Matlab software, we can make the forward or inverse kinematics computation of the robot arm. In the control aspect, the PC based controller and the DSP based 8 axis motion control card were used to control the robot arm. When the robot arm hardware was finished, the PID control parameters of the servo motors should be adjusted first. Finally, we make some experiments; the PC based controller can control the robot arm to grab a box through a moving path successfully. View full abstract»

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    Trajectory generation for beverage can opening operation by single and dual robot arm

    Yoshimi, T. ; Ohnuki, Y. ; Yaguchi, K. ; Ando, Y. ; Mizukawa, M.
    Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699823
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 4282 - 4287

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The purpose of this study is to execute a beverage can opening task by an articulated versatile robot arm, which is often executed in our daily life. We generated beverage can opening trajectories for position controlled single robot arm and dual robot arm. We analyzed the humans' can opening operations and generated trajectories for opening the lid of beverage can. They are sequential rotational and translational motions for a single robot arm, and their concurrent cooperated motions for a dual robot arm. We confirmed that the beverage can opening operations by single and dual robot arms are successfully achieved based on our generated trajectories. Additionally, from the comparison of these two trajectories, we found out that the trajectory of the dual robot arm is robust and efficient. And, the configuration of the motions of single and dual robot arms is different, but operations to the beverage can by each robot arm are essentially the same. View full abstract»

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    Gravity compensation and compliance based force control for auxiliarily easiness in manipulating robot arm

    Luo, R.C. ; Yi, C.Y. ; Perng, Y.W.
    Control Conference (ASCC), 2011 8th Asian

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1193 - 1198

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The objective of this paper is to present the gravity compensation and compliance based force control for auxiliarily easiness in manipulating robot arm. Haptical application of the safety-priority robot arm technique which interacts with people must reduce the gear ratio and design necessary algorithm which can provide auxiliarily easiness in moving the robot arm especially during the teach and learning mode. In this study, we discuss the effects of two aspects and propose a control algorithm to improve efficiency of carrying heavy item. Firstly, the gear ratio of motor is bounded so that robot can be more flexibly compliant while user take grip on it. However, robot manipulator control algorithms will suffer greater gravity downward pulling issue due to low gear ratio. To solve this problem of gravity compensation, we propose a method that based on the concept of vector projection to calculate a general solution which can construct a gravity model of multi-DOF robot arm. Furthermore, we define a virtual mode that is proposed to compensate the deficiency of inertia's physical phenomenon. Secondly, we propose an approach which we call it force counterbalance control (FCC) that not only balances external load variation in addition to robot weight itself, but also keeps the property of dexterous easiness in manipulating the multi DOF robot arm. The FCC algorithm can be applied on several applications such as carrying heavy item or being auxiliarily easinese in manipulating robot arm. Our experimental result demonstrates the benefit of the proposed effect. View full abstract»

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    An adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy control approach for motion control of a robot arm

    Lakshmi, K.V. ; Mashuq-un-Nabi
    Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), 2012 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICIEV.2012.6317522
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 832 - 836
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper proposes an adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy control approach for controlling the link variables of a 4 degree-of-freedom Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA) type robot arm / manipulator. In the real world environment, the mathematical models of many robots are often not accurate, due to the presence of continuous disturbances that effect their dynamic equations, in addition to errors in parameter knowledge. Consequently, method that rely less on precise mathematical models are often preferred. One such Adaptive Machine Learning Technique is proposed to be applied here, for motion control of the robot arm. The controller uses an inverse learning Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model only to train itself from certain given robot trajectories. Ideally, these trajectories should be obtained by directly measuring the robot arm responses for given inputs to capture the actual dynamics in the presence of all uncertainties. However, for algorithm validation, trajectories generated through simulations based on mathematical models assumed to be reasonably accurate, can also be used for the training purpose. This approach is used for design and implementation of an ANFIS controller which is shown to act work satisfactorily. Further possible developments of this method are also outlined. View full abstract»

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    On the dynamics and control of ETS-7 satellite and its robot arm

    Oda, M.
    Intelligent Robots and Systems '94. 'Advanced Robotic Systems and the Real World', IROS '94. Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ/GI International Conference on

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.1994.407644
    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 1586 - 1593 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    ETS-7 is the 7th engineering test satellite of NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) to be launched in 1997. The satellite has a 6-DOF robot arm for space robot technology experiments. Mass of the payload varies from a few kg to 400 kg and mass of the satellite is about 2.2t. Therefore a dynamic interaction between the robot arm motion and the satellite attitude motion is not negligible for satellite attitude stability and robot arm motion planning. Attitude of the satellite must be stabilized since a communication link with a ground control station is established by a dish antenna directed to a data relay satellite in the geostationary orbit. Two wing shaped solar panels must also be pointed to the Sun. It is difficult to control the satellite attitude and a robot arm in a combined mode since the current spaceborne computer does not have enough computational power to handle the complicated dynamics in real time. This paper proposes a distributed and cooperative control method which connects the robot control system and the satellite attitude control system. The robot control system controls the robot arm and estimates the reaction force to the satellite. The attitude control system will compensate this reaction force by the feedforward control. The robot control system will also check its motion plan not to produce large attitude error. This distributed and cooperative control method avoids excess onboard computational power and complicated interface between the two control systems. This method is applicable for both reaction (momentum) wheel control and gas jet thruster control View full abstract»

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    Evaluation of human-robot arm movement imitation

    Hsien-I Lin ; Yu-Cheng Liu ; Chi-Li Chen
    Control Conference (ASCC), 2011 8th Asian

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 287 - 292

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Robot skill learning by imitation is an intuitive approach to learn robot skills from the observation of human behaviors. However, due to the discrepancy of mechanism between humans and robots such as the type of joint and the number of degree of freedom (DOF), a robot may not be able to imitate a human's movements faithfully. For a robot arm, the major problem is caused by the lack of a degree of freedom in the shoulder compared to a human arm. In this paper, we develop a similarity metric to evaluate how faithfully a robot arm imitates a human's arm movements. This metric is derived by utilizing the sequence-independent joint angle representation for both human and robot arms because it represents their postures more directly than the sequence-dependent Euler joint angle representation. In addition, the derived metric is formulated with the spatial relationship between human and robot arm postures instead of the Frobenius norm of the difference matrix between human and robot transformation matrices. To investigate the joint angles of the sequence-independent joint angle representation for a human arm, we adopt the particle-swarm optimization (PSO) to numerically derive them from human demonstration data. Computer simulations and experimental work were conducted to validate the proposed approach on a robot arm with two degrees of freedom in the shoulder and a DOF in the elbow. View full abstract»

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    Mapping human to robot motion with functional anthropomorphism for teleoperation and telemanipulation with robot arm hand systems

    Liarokapis, M.V. ; Artemiadis, P.K. ; Kyriakopoulos, K.J.
    Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2013.6696638
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2075

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Multimedia

    In this paper teleoperation and telemanipulation with a robot arm (Mitsubishi PA-10) and a robot hand (DLR/HIT 2) is performed, using a human to robot motion mapping scheme that guarantees anthropomorphism. Two position trackers are used to capture position and orientation of human end-effector (wrist) and human elbow in 3D space and a dataglove to capture human hand kinematics. Then the inverse kinematics (IK) of the Mitsubishi PA-10 7-DoF robot arm are solved in an analytical manner, in order for the human's and the robot artifact's end-effectors to achieve same position and orientation in 3D space (functional constraint). Redundancy is handled in the solution space of the robot arm's IK, selecting the most anthropomorphic solution computed, with a criterion of “Functional Anthropomorphism”. Human hand motion is transformed to robot hand motion using the joint-to-joint mapping methodology. Finally in order for the user to be able to detect contact and “perceive” the forces exerted by the robot hand, a low-cost force feedback device, that provides a mixture of sensory information (visual and vibrotactile), was developed. View full abstract»

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    Walking assist design of a dual-arm robot

    Ching-Jui Wu ; Kai-Tai Song
    Control & Automation (ICCA), 11th IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCA.2014.6870932
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 273 - 278

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, a dual-arm mobile robot is designed and experimented to provide walking support to a user. The robot has two operation modes, which can be transformed according to the user's need. When the robot is in the grasping mode, the robot can fetch an object using computer vision and 6-DOF robot arms. When the user wants walking help, the robot can be configured to the supporting mode to provide walking assist. In the supporting mode, the robot arms are transformed to close and hold each other by the special designed buckle mechanism. A motion planning strategy is proposed to achieve arm-closing and buckle locking and unlocking. In this way, the robot arms are configured into a handrail for user support. Furthermore, a 6-DOF force/torque sensor is installed on the right robot arm to estimate the user's motion intent. The walking support system determines robot velocity based on a compliance controller to provide the walking assist. Several experiments validate the proposed design and demonstrate the dual-arm robot can provide user walking assist. View full abstract»

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    A kinematic equation and trajectory planning of flexible arm space robot

    Changjun Xia ; Xiuxia Yang ; Wenjin Gu
    Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP), 2012 Third International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICICIP.2012.6391504
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 417 - 421

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The researches of flexible arm space robot kinematics are less, so as the trajectory planning researches from the kinematics aspect, the reason is flexible arm elastic vibration which has infinite dimensional vibration modality turn the space robot system kinematics to very complex. This paper denotes the elastic variable of space robot flexible arms with the flexible arm link end deformation and deformation angle, overcome the difficulty which may be brought by infinite dimensional vibration modality variable of flexible arm in modeling system kinematics. The kinematic equation of flexible arm space robot which includes elastic variable is established in the form of generalized Jacobian matrix. Continuous trajectory planning algorithm of flexible arm space robot in inertial space reference system is designed based on the kinematic equation. The simulation shows that planned rotary movement law of space robot arm joints may compensate for the impact that vibration of space robot flexible links gives to the end position of space robot arms, and ensure the end of space robot arms along the expected trajectory. View full abstract»

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    Evolutionary co-optimization of control and system parameters for a resonating robot arm

    Pen, J. ; Caarls, W. ; Wisse, M. ; Babuska, R.
    Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2013 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICRA.2013.6631170
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 4195 - 4202

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper we simultaneously optimize the parameters describing the morphology of a robot arm and the parameters of its nonlinear controller. A novel concept of a pick-and-place robot arm is considered, which is called the resonating arm (RA). It uses a nonlinear spring mechanism to generate pick-and-place motions without the need for powerful actuators. This improves energy efficiency, cost and weight of the robot arm. Because of the complex interactions of the spring mechanism and the controller, we use evolutionary co-optimization to optimize the RA system as a whole. The results reveal that evolutionary co-optimization yields near optimal solutions for a 1 degree of freedom (1-DOF) RA, which require 43% less torque than the solution found through a separate optimization of the system and the control parameters. In case of a 2-DOF RA, evolutionary co-optimization resulted in credible solutions as well, but with less consistency. View full abstract»

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    Design and dynamics model of a lightweight series elastic tendon-driven robot arm

    Lens, T. ; von Stryk, O.
    Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2013 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICRA.2013.6631218
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 4512 - 4518

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents the design of a lightweight robot arm intended for safe physical human-robot interaction. The robot arm design combines tendon actuation with elasticity in the tendons to achieve a significant reduction in mass and passive compliant behavior. The use of elastic tendons in all joints in order to gain maximum safety and performance properties, however, results in a significant increase of the model complexity with oscillatory behavior and kinematic coupling of the joint equilibrium positions. Therefore, special effort needs to be made to model the robot arm dynamics, which is an essential basis for model-based algorithms utilizing and fully exploiting the particular properties of the robot arm. This paper therefore derives the full dynamics model of the robot arm with focus on the nonlinear elastic tendon actuators, the kinematic tendon coupling, and modeling complexity reduction by reflecting all model parameters to the joint space. The resulting model is validated by comparing the identified simulation model with experimental data of an application-related pick-and-place trajectory and a trajectory with undamped oscillating motions of the robot arm. View full abstract»

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    Guideline for determination of link mass of a robot arm for collision safety

    Sang-Duck Lee ; Jae-Bok Song
    Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intelligence (URAI), 2011 8th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/URAI.2011.6145847
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 383 - 385

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In recent years the collision safety between a human and a robot has been increasingly important because of the spread of service robots. In order to design a safe robot arm, the collision safety evaluation must be conducted prior to the construction of the robot arm to compute the necessary design parameters. Previous evaluation methods required the use of the actual robot, which are both time consuming and expensive. In this study we propose a new human-robot collision model and a collision safety evaluation method which does not require the use of the actual robot. A human-robot collision model is developed, and the collision safety of a 3 DOF planar robot arm is evaluated. Then, using the evaluation results, the design of the robot arm is modified to ensure the collision safety. The proposed evaluation method enables the appropriate design parameters for a safe robot arm to be determined in a short period of time at the minimal cost. View full abstract»

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    Design of the end-effector tool attachment for robot arm with multiple reconfigurable goals

    Gueta, L.B. ; Chiba, R. ; Arai, T. ; Ueyama, T. ; Ota, J.
    Automation Science and Engineering, 2008. CASE 2008. IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/COASE.2008.4626570
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 876 - 881
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A custom-made robot arm that is specially designed for a given task is better than a general-purpose robot arm based on the performance index it is designed for. In industries, however, a general-purpose robot arm is prevalently used since it can perform over several and varying tasks. Because of this, a custom-made robot arm becomes impractical due to its high fabrication cost. In this study, we propose the design of tool attachment as a cost-effective and alternative method for improving the performance of a general-purpose robot arm. Wherein, the task completion time is the performance index in designing the tool attachment. A tool attachment, a passive linkage attached between the end-effector of robot arm and tool, is customized for a given task. We showed that the proposed method is effective by employing it in a task with multiple reconfigurable goals, or goals that can be rearranged and can be positioned by a table. View full abstract»

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    Simulation and analysis of dynamics of the force-free control for industrial robot arms

    Pallegedara, A. ; Matsuda, Y. ; Egashira, N. ; Sugi, T. ; Goto, S.
    Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS), 2012 12th International Conference on

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 733 - 738

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Simulation and analysis of the dynamic force-free control of robot arm with revolute joints are presented in this paper. Initially, modeling of dynamic force-free control method is described. Then simulation is carried out for single arm and two arm links robots by adopting Matlab/Simulink environment. The model characteristics of the force-free control is utilized to demonstrate the autonomous safety action being taken by the robot arm in particular instances such as; when the robot insisting on an undesirable operation or a collision with an obstacle or an unusual dragging along the working objects. Finally, simulation results are taken by adopting the force-free control on robot arms with industrial mechatronics controllers. Moreover, analysis of the force-free control is carried out by using real robot parameters throughout the simulations. Since the force-free control is about to deal with external forces given to the robot arm, it can be used to illustrate the cooperative control between a human and a robot arm by means of passive motion through external force. View full abstract»

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    Real time human motion imitation of anthropomorphic dual arm robot based on Cartesian impedance control

    Luo, R.C. ; Bo-Han Shih ; Tsung-Wei Lin
    Robotic and Sensors Environments (ROSE), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ROSE.2013.6698413
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 25 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presented a real-time human motion imitation approach to control an anthropomorphic dual arm robot by human demonstration. We use the processed positions of human skeleton joints from Kinect sensor as commands directly to control the robot arms by using Cartesian impedance control to follow the human motion without solving inverse kinematics problem. In order to avoid a jerky robot arm motion, we apply an on-line trajectory generator algorithm to obtain a smooth movement trajectory by imposing the limit of velocity and acceleration. Moreover, the self-collision problem has also been considered. When the distance between two parts of body is close enough, a repulsive force will automatically generate to prevent collision. Taking the robot capability and safe issue into account, the output force is restricted to ensure that the action of robot is stable. We demonstrate the feasibility of the approach by implementing the human motion imitation system on a humanoid dual arm robot developed in our lab. The experimental results show that the system is in good practice and flexible enough to imitate various human motions. View full abstract»

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    Self-adapting robot arm movement employing neural oscillators

    Woosung Yang ; Ji-Hun Bae ; Jaesung Kwon ; Nak Young Chong ; Younghwan Oh ; Bum Jae You
    Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2009. IROS 2009. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2009.5353976
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 2235 - 2242
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper proposes a neural oscillator based control to attain rhythmically dynamic movements of a robot arm. In human or animal, it is known that neural oscillators could produce rhythmic commands efficiently and robustly under the changing task environment. In particular, entrainments of the neural oscillator play a key role to adapt the nervous system to the natural frequency of the interacted environments. Hence, we discuss how a robot arm controls for exhibiting natural adaptive motions as a controller employing the entrainment property. To demonstrate the excellence of entrainment, we implement the proposed control scheme to a real robot arm. Then this work shows the performance of the robot arm coupled to neural oscillators in various tasks that the arm traces a trajectory. Exploiting the neural oscillator and its entrainment property, we experimentally verify an impressive capability of self-adaptation of the neural oscillator that enables the robot arm to make adaptive changes corresponding to an exterior environment. View full abstract»

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    Haarwavelet approach to singular system time invariant model robot arm control problem

    Nandhakumar, S. ; Selladurai, V. ; Dhanasekaran, R.
    Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICCCCT), 2010 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCCCT.2010.5670577
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 350 - 356
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper aims to estimate the error in the control of a robot arm model by analyzing dynamics of the robot arm. The dynamics of robot arm has represented in the form of second order differential equation. A meticulous attempt has been made to estimate the error by comparing the solutions obtained using Single Term Walsh Series (STWS) and Single-Term Haar Wavelet Series (STHWS) method. The exact solution representing the arm model of a robot has been compared with the corresponding discrete solution at different time intervals. The absolute error between the exact and discrete solutions has also been determined in order to suggest the method which improves the performance of a robot. The validation has also been carried out with reference to the earlier research output appeared in this field of study. View full abstract»

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    Obstacle avoidance path planning strategy for robot arm based on fuzzy logic

    Yanjie Chen ; Yaonan Wang ; Xiao Yu
    Control Automation Robotics & Vision (ICARCV), 2012 12th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICARCV.2012.6485438
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1648 - 1653
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, a novel path planning strategy based on fuzzy logic for a robot arm with a fixed pedestal is proposed, and the simulation environment conditions in which the robot arm works are specific and unpredictable. First, considering a simple working platform set in front of the robot arm system, it will become an obstacle when robot is working. Second, an obstacle avoidance path planning strategy is designed and the coordinates of robot arm end are used to achieve close-loop control. In addition, fuzzy control theory is applied to design a fuzzy path planning controller, and a dangerous sign is introduced to avoid obstacle. Finally, the experiments simulated on a two-joint robot arm with a fixed pedestal is given. The results show the feasibility and safety of the proposed path planning strategy. View full abstract»

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    Multi-DOF Counterbalance Mechanism for a Service Robot Arm

    Hwi-Su Kim ; Jae-Bok Song
    Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

    Volume: 19 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2014.2308312
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1756 - 1763

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Low-cost but high-performance robot arms are required for widespread use of service robots. Most robot arms use expensive motors and speed reducers to provide torques sufficient to support the robot mass and payload. If the gravitational torques due to the robot mass, which is usually much greater than the payload, can be compensated for by some means; the robot would need much smaller torques, which can be delivered by cheap actuator modules. To this end, we propose a novel counterbalance mechanism which can completely counterbalance the gravitational torques due to the robot mass. Since most 6-DOF robots have three pitch joints, which are subject to gravitational torques, we propose a 3-DOF counterbalance mechanism based on the double parallelogram mechanism, in which reference planes are provided to each joint for proper counterbalancing. A 5-DOF counterbalance robot arm was built to demonstrate the performance of the proposed mechanism. Simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed mechanism had effectively decreased the torque required to support the robot mass, thus allowing the prospective use of low-cost motors and speed reducers for high-performance robot arms. View full abstract»

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    Inertial measurement system for the position control of a flexible robot arm

    Cronje, H.A. ; Gouws, J.
    Electrotechnical Conference, 1996. MELECON '96., 8th Mediterranean

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MELCON.1996.551409
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 1141 - 1144 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A method to measure the position of the end of a robot arm using an inertial measurement system was designed and tested. Traditionally large robots determine their positions in the work space by means of sensors affixed to the joints of the arm segments. This method cannot be used in the case of flexible arms, due to the bending of the arm, which in turn influences the position of the arm's endpoint. It was decided to make use of three angular rate sensors to determine the position of the arm's end point, since these sensors measure the displacement of the arm irrespective of the movement of the joints in the arm. It is thus possible to determine the position of the arm's endpoint, irrespective of bending or movement of the joints. The experimental system described consists of three piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes affixed on a small two-segment robot arm View full abstract»

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    Development of a torque sensing robot arm for interactive communication

    Hashimoto, M. ; Hattori, T. ; Horiuchi, M. ; Kamata, T.
    Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2002. Proceedings. 11th IEEE International Workshop on

    DOI: 10.1109/ROMAN.2002.1045646
    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 344 - 349
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Joint torque sensing is important for interactive robots, since the robot interacts with humans and the environment by not only the end effector but also the whole body. We have proposed a practical torque sensing technique which utilizes the flexible part of an harmonic drive gear. The sensing technique provides joint torque sensing without reducing the stiffness of the robot or changing the mechanical structure of the joints. Thus, the torque sensing technique is applicable to joint torque sensing for interactive robots. We developed a 7 DOF anthropomorphic robot arm with harmonic drive gearing built-in joint torque sensors. By using the torque sensing technique we realized an anthropomorphic robot arm with dimensions almost the same as those of the human arm. In this paper, we describe the design and prototyping of the robot arm and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the joint torque sensing technique. View full abstract»

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    EMG-based teleoperation of a robot arm using low-dimensional representation

    Artemiadis, P.K. ; Kyriakopoulos, K.J.
    Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007. IROS 2007. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2007.4399452
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 489 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (10)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In robot teleoperation scenarios, the interface between the user and the robot is undoubtedly of high importance. In this paper, electromyographic (EMG) signals from muscles of the human upper limb are used as the control interface between the user and a remote robot arm. The proposed interface consists of surface EMG electrodes, placed at the user's skin at several locations on the arm, letting the user's upper limb free of bulky interface sensors or machinery usually found in conventional teleoperation systems. The motion of the human upper limb entails the activation of a large number of muscles (i.e. more than 30 muscles, not including finger movements). Moreover, the human arm has 7 degrees of freedom (DoFs) suggesting a wide variety of motions. Therefore, the mapping between these two high-dimensional data (i.e. the muscles activation and the motion of the human arm), is an extremely challenging issue. For this reason, a novel methodology is proposed here, where the mapping between the muscles activation and the motion of the user's arm is done in a low-dimensional space. Each of the high-dimensional input (muscle activation) and output (arm motion) vectors, is transformed into an individual low-dimensional space, where the mapping between the two low-dimensional vectors is then feasible. A state-space model is trained to map the low-dimensional representation of the muscles activation to the corresponding motion of the user's arm. After training, the state-space model can decode the human arm motion in real time with high accuracy, using only EMG recordings. The estimated motion is used to control a remote anthropomorphic robot arm. The accuracy of the proposed method is assessed through real-time experiments including motion in two-dimensional (2D) space. View full abstract»

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    Intelligent Variable Joint Impedance Control and Development of a New Whole-Sensitive Anthropomorphic Robot Arm

    Tsetserukou, D. ; Tadakuma, R. ; Kajimoto, H. ; Kawakami, N. ; Tachi, S.
    Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 2007. CIRA 2007. International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/CIRA.2007.382885
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 338 - 343
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The paper focuses on design and control of a new anthropomorphic robot arm enabling the torque measurement in each joint to ensure safety while performing tasks of physical interaction with human and environment. When the contact of the arm with an object occurs, local impedance algorithm provides active compliance of corresponding robot arm joint. Thus, the whole structure of the manipulator can safely interact with unstructured environment. A novel variable control strategy was elaborated to increase the robot functionality and to achieve human-like dynamics of interaction. In the paper, we detail the design procedure of 4-DOF robot arm and optical torque sensors. The experimental results of variable joint impedance control show that proposed approach not only provides safe interaction of entire structure of robot arm with a person, but also improves the effectiveness of contact task performance, enables thus to contact with environment in a delicate manner. View full abstract»

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