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    A Survey on Security Aspects for LTE and LTE-A Networks

    Jin Cao ; Maode Ma ; Hui Li ; Yueyu Zhang ; Zhenxing Luo
    Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE

    Volume: 16 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/SURV.2013.041513.00174
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 283 - 302

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    High demands for broadband mobile wireless communications and the emergence of new wireless multimedia applications constitute the motivation to the development of broadband wireless access technologies in recent years. The Long Term Evolution/System Architecture Evolution (LTE/SAE) system has been specified by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) on the way towards fourth-generation (4G) mobile to ensure 3GPP keeping the dominance of the cellular communication technologies. Through the design and optimization of new radio access techniques and a further evolution of the LTE systems, the 3GPP is developing the future LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) wireless networks as the 4G standard of the 3GPP. Since the 3GPP LTE and LTE-A architecture are designed to support flat Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity and full interworking with heterogeneous wireless access networks, the new unique features bring some new challenges in the design of the security mechanisms. This paper makes a number of contributions to the security aspects of the LTE and LTE-A networks. First, we present an overview of the security functionality of the LTE and LTE-A networks. Second, the security vulnerabilities existing in the architecture and the design of the LTE and LTE-A networks are explored. Third, the existing solutions to these problems are classically reviewed. Finally, we show the potential research issues for the future research works. View full abstract»

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    Toward LTE commercial launch and future plan for LTE enhancements (LTE-Advanced)

    Abeta, S.
    Communication Systems (ICCS), 2010 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCS.2010.5686367
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 146 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (23)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As a promising radio access technology for next generation mobile communication systems, LTE (Long-Term Evolution) is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) international standardization organization. LTE Release 8 has many advantages to the other systems, e.g., the peak throughput is 300Mbps in Downlink (DL) and 75Mbps in Uplink (UL), 2-3 time higher spectrum efficiency than Rel. 6 HSPA (High Speed Packet Access), very low latency around 5msec in RAN (Radio Access Network) and 100msec for connection setup time. With Release 8, the first version for LTE specification, being completed in March 2009, the LTE standard is now being developed towards commercialization in various countries in the world. This paper addresses the plan for LTE commercial launch in NTT DOCOMO and future plan for LTE Rel. 9 and LTE-Advanced (LTE Rel. 10 and beyond). View full abstract»

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    IP Multimedia Relay Architectures with Multi-RAT Support in LTE-Advanced Wireless Network

    Yi-Ting Mai ; Jeng-Yueng Chen
    Modelling Symposium (AMS), 2013 7th Asia

    DOI: 10.1109/AMS.2013.49
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 283 - 288

    IEEE Conference Publications

    LTE/LTE-Advanced is the competing leader of access network technology in 4G wireless networks. LTE is one of 3GPP standards, and furthermore LTE and LTE-Advanced are developed by 3GPP which are organized by telecommunication manufacturers and operators. Moreover, LTE and LTE-Advanced are backward compatible with 3G/UMTS cellular systems. To improve radio resource utilization, simultaneously deploying Multiple Radio Access Technologies (Multi-RATs) in a given coverage area, to carry the complete offered user traffic, provides a superior user experience. The LTE-Advanced has added a new entity called relay node (RN) to enlarge service coverage and provides flexibility of deployment. If RN can support Multi-RATs including UMTS, IEEE 802.11 and 802.16, the LTE-advanced system can provide more flexible IP multimedia services. However, the virtualization system architecture for Multi-RAT support is still under development. This paper focuses on integrated architecture design by which RN can provide services for both UMTS UEs and LTE UEs. Two novel architectures (Arch-A and Arch-B) with three useful alternatives respectively, namely Alt_1, Alt_2 and Alt_3 are presented in this paper. As shown in the protocol stacks, our proposed approaches can integrate the services of 3G UMTS and 4G LTE-Advanced wireless network. Thus, the transition between 3G and 4G is more easily achieved between our proposed novel Alt_1, Alt_2 and Alt_3 alternatives based on two architectures via IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS). View full abstract»

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    Performance of LTE Release 8 and Release 10 in wireless communications

    Abdullah, M.F.L. ; Yonis, A.Z.
    Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare and Digital Forensic (CyberSec), 2012 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CyberSec.2012.6246127
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 236 - 241

    IEEE Conference Publications

    LTE-Advanced (Release 10) is a preliminary mobile communication standard formally submitted as a candidate 4G systems to the ITU-T. It is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as a major enhancement of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE-Release 8) standard, which proved to be sufficient to satisfy market's demand. The 3GPP group has been working on different aspects to improve LTE performance, where the purpose of the framework provided by LTE-Advanced, includes higher order MIMO, carrier aggregation (carriers with multiple components), and heterogeneous networks (relays, picos). This paper presents a study on evolution LTE toward LTE-Advanced in terms of LTE enabling technologies (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO)). This paper also focuses on LTE-Advanced technologies MIMO enhancements for LTE-Advanced, Coordinated Multi Point transmission (CoMP), repeaters and relays. View full abstract»

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    Equivalent capacity analysis of LTE-Advanced systems with carrier aggregation

    Ran Zhang ; Zhongming Zheng ; Miao Wang ; Xuemin Shen ; Liang-Liang Xie
    Communications (ICC), 2013 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2013.6655582
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 6118 - 6122

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The Long Term Evolution - Advanced (LTE-A) standard is widely accepted for the 4th generation mobile systems to satisfy the explosive growth of high-data-rate demand. Carrier Aggregation (CA) is considered as one of the most momentous techniques adopted in LTE-A standard. Many studies have been done to analyze the performance of LTE-A systems with CA in terms of average user throughput. However, the system-level capacity analysis of LTE-A systems has not been well studied. In this paper, we explore the downlink admission control process in LTE-A systems with CA to compare the capacities between LTE users and LTE-A users, based on the metric - equivalent capacity. Specifically, taking into account the user heterogeneity, the system evolution is modeled as a birth-death process for each user class based on an effective user traffic generation model. A closed-form relationship between the equivalent capacity and system bandwidth is then derived for a single-carrier LTE-A system with the help of binomial-normal approximation. The relationship is further extended to multi-carrier case for both LTE users and LTE-A users. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify our analytical ones, and demonstrate that the equivalent capacity of LTE-A users surpasses that of LTE users significantly. View full abstract»

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    Handover algorithm with joint processing in LTE-advanced

    Cheng-Chung Lin ; Sandrasegaran, K. ; Reeves, S.
    Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), 2012 9th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ECTICon.2012.6254240
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    LTE is a purely packet-switched radio access technology and improves the legacy systems by supporting higher data rates with low latency. Release 8 of LTE has a number of gaps that prevent it from meeting the IMT-Advanced requirements for 4G. Release 10 has been proposed to fulfill the additional requirements. Coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and reception is the key technique in LTE-Advanced to improve the cell-edge throughput and/or system throughput, especially joint processing (JP) in CoMP provides multiple data transmission points among multiple cooperated cells for each user equipment (UE) in the network. The standard handover algorithm in LTE could not satisfy the concept of JP in LTE-Advanced. Therefore a new handover algorithm supports JP in LTE-Advanced is necessary. In this paper, a handover algorithm with JP in LTE-A system is implemented and simulated by a C/C++ simulation tool. Simulation results show that, when compared with the standard handover algorithm in LTE system, handover algorithm with JP in LTE-Advanced is able to improve system throughput and minimize packet loss ratio (PLR) effectively. However this algorithm could lead to system capacity overload and saturated system throughput issues when dealing large amount of UEs in the network. View full abstract»

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    CSI-RS design for virtualized antenna when LTE and LTE-A efficiently coexisting

    Jianming Wu
    Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2012 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/PIMRC.2012.6362696
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2073 - 2078
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, we newly design a CSI-RS for virtualized antenna system when LTE and LTE-A are efficiently coexisting in Rel-10 and beyond. To this end, we newly insert a small amount of CSI-RS into the locations which is close to the existing CRS positions for legacy LTE as enough as possible. The newly designed CSI-RS modulated by space time coded signal efficiently works well for LTE-A UE channel estimation when the number of antennas involved in LTE-A system is larger than four which are normally used for LTE system as maximal. In such a legacy system with eight physical transmit antennas, eight antenna ports with eight orthogonal CSI-RSs are exploited for LTE-A system while virtualized four antenna ports are for LTE system. The benefit of the proposed solution is to significantly reduce the CSI-RS overhead, compared to the overhead employed in the existing Rel-10 system. View full abstract»

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    Study of advanced-opportunistic proportionate fairness scheduler for LTE medium access control

    Chaudhuri, S. ; Das, D. ; Bhaskaran, R.
    Internet Multimedia Systems Architecture and Application (IMSAA), 2011 IEEE 5th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IMSAA.2011.6156352
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Medium Access Control (MAC) scheduler entity forms one of the most important parts of any high speed packet access system like HSDPA or LTE. To the best of our knowledge the LTE MAC schedulers that had been proposed so far constitute of sub-carrier resource scheduling mostly based on single criteria like user throughput, link conditions, buffer constraints or power requirement. The above LTE MAC scheduler algorithms do not take care of user's queue weight calculation taking all the above mentioned parameters into consideration. In this paper, we proposed a novel algorithm to support dynamic queue weight calculation and referred it as Advanced-Opportunistic Proportionate Fairness Scheduler for LTE (A-OPFS-LTE). The A-OPFS-LTE, calculates the queue weight based on multiple parameters like flow control feedback, hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) retransmission status, service class type, guaranteed bit rate, access terminal (AT's) channel condition, queue's buffer utilization and later assigns the physical resource block. A-OPFS-LTE was able to schedule 14 uncompressed VoIP calls or 5 streaming type video calls every 1 milli-second scheduling cycle with packet loss less than 2%. Compared with MAC scheduler [10, 11], A-OPFS-LTE scheduler supports 10% cell throughput improvement and 30% more users. View full abstract»

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    LTE-A uplink antenna solution analysis

    Fang Zhou ; Hua Guo
    Communications and Networking in China (CHINACOM), 2013 8th International ICST Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ChinaCom.2013.6694609
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 296 - 301

    IEEE Conference Publications

    MIMO is basic antenna solution for LTE system comparing to UMTS optional MIMO function, and MIMO can improve LTE cell coverage and frequency usage efficiency. Uplink coverage is very important for LTE system, and MU-MIMO antenna solutions can enhance the LTE uplink coverage and capacity. The paper analyses the relation between different antenna configurations and cell spectral efficiency under uplink MU-MIMO antenna mode for LTE-A system. LTE-advanced supports advanced MIMO antenna techniques such as coordinated multi-point (CoMP).The paper proposes 4Rx CoMP antenna deployment solution for LTE-A intra-eNodeB network and also analyses the impact of the LTE cell throughput by uplink 4Rx CoMP technique. View full abstract»

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    Impact of smart grid traffic peak loads on shared LTE network performance

    Markkula, J. ; Haapola, J.
    Communications (ICC), 2013 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2013.6655193
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 4046 - 4051
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The purpose of the paper is to examine if public long term evolution (LTE) network is suitable for smart grid (SG) automatic metering usage, in a suburban scenario, without causing significant hindrance to typical LTE traffic. In addition, the same generalized suburban scenario is evaluated with a hybrid sensor - LTE network where wireless sensor network (WSN) cluster heads are also equipped with LTE remote terminal units (RTUs). The simulation topology is formed as a suburban area that consists of single RTU per apartment/house for SG traffic and an average 3.7 people per habitat, each with their user equipment, using one of the available carriers. Normal SG traffic is generated in both directions, uplink and downlink. The worst-case usage factor is considered as a power outage, where all SG meters in the area of influence simultaneously detect and attempt to report such a failure. Thus, emergency SG traffic is generated simultaneous by all RTUs. To alleviate the problem of the high momentary SG emergency traffic load, two distinct solutions are proposed and simulated. As the first solution, an artificial, up to one-second random delay is introduced in the transmission scheduling of emergency messages. The second solution applies low-power WSNs at the cluster level and cluster heads that contain both 802.15.4 and LTE communication interfaces, i.e., a hybrid sensor-LTE network. The simulation results show that both of the solutions that try to alleviate the high instantaneous traffic loads can reach the quality of service criteria for SG traffic without compromising other public LTE traffic. The deciding factor to use either pure LTE approach or a hybrid sensor-LTE network comes from non-functional requirements of the system. View full abstract»

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    Testing of early applied LTE-Advanced technologies on current LTE service to overcome real network problem and to increase data capacity

    Seung-Chul Shin ; Young-Poong Lee
    Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 2013 15th International Conference on

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 275 - 281

    IEEE Conference Publications

    LTE service that has advantage of high data rate and speed is successful launched in the world wide with 57 service provider in 32 countries as of Mar 2012. But data throughput gap between peak data rate and average date rate is more increased than legacy wireless application, and it brings big problem on the current high rate data service. Although LTE supports high peak data rate, its average is 35% lower than peak data rate. But 2G service, GSM/GPRS is almost same rate with peak data rate. So Frequency efficiency is became important factor for high data throughput service. Especially, Korea Service providers, SKT, KT, LGU+, try to apply early engaged LTE-Advanced technologies to increase frequency efficiency and to cover data traffic using complementary wireless application like Carrier-Aggregation, Multi-Frequency band, Heterogeneous Network. First of all, briefly introduce LTE-Advanced technologies and problem of current LTE service and finally, we are finding design and test challenges of early applied LTE-Advanced technologies, Carrier-Aggregation, Multi-standard Radio and Multi-frequency band LTE. View full abstract»

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    Coexistence studies on the interference performance between mobile satellite system and LTE network

    Zhang Meng ; Yu Hai ; Fu Yulin ; Chang Yongyu
    Communications, China

    Volume: 10 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1109/CC.2013.6570794
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 11

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The interference coexistence performance between the systems of a Long Term Evolution (LTE) network and Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system, both of which work around the frequency of approximately 2 GHz according to the bandwidth allocation in China, is proposed in this article. The related background of an MSS system and the common terminologies are introduced. Further, the coexistence scenarios of different coverage situations shared by the two systems are discussed. The interference impact of an MSS transmission on an LTE system is evaluated using a specific Monte Carlo method. Finally, simulation results show that although no crucial issues for the coexistence of an LTE downlink and the MSS are observed, the LTE uplink suffers a considerable amount of interference from the MSS transmission. Given the insufficient isolation between LTE and MSS existing networks, and the rapid advance in the field of LTE, problems may emerge in the near future. Further, this article can be of significance in providing reference for frequency spectrum planning in the existing LTE networks. View full abstract»

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    BER analysis of single/multi-user LTE and LTE- A systems

    Chawla, P. ; Gupta, B.
    Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 2014 IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/IAdCC.2014.6779331
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 262 - 266

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems along with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique plays a crucial role in 4G based wireless networks. The inclusion of MIMO technology enables new types of links such as downlink multi-user communication. Long term evolution (LTE) systems are based on multi-user MIMO technologies, which have flexible bandwidths. In this paper, we derived closed form expression of bit error rate (BER) for multi-user LTE and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) systems. Moment generating function (MGF) and pair-wise error probability (PEP) based approaches are used to derive these BER expressions. Theoretical results of BER are validated using simulation results for different number of users. Results are plotted on the basis of various features such as coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and reception, multimedia broadcast and multicast services (MBMS) and allocation of Bandwidth in LTE and LTE-A systems. View full abstract»

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    CPRI compression transport for LTE and LTE-A signal in C-RAN

    Bin Guo ; Wei Cao ; An Tao ; Samardzija, D.
    Communications and Networking in China (CHINACOM), 2012 7th International ICST Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ChinaCom.2012.6417602
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 843 - 849
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    C-RAN is the next-generation clean wireless access network architecture, which is based on centralized processing, the Collaborative Radio and Real-time Cloud Infrastructure. In C-RAN architecture, different access technology (eg.GSM / TD-SCDMA / WCDMA / LTE) can be support on the same hardware platform in baseband pool system; C-RAN can be applied to reduce the consumption of operators. LTE (Long Term Evolution) and LTE-A, which are based on OFDM and MIMO technologies, are regarded as the main wireless access technology in the evolution from 3G to 4G. LTE introduces variety of novel technologies to improve the system performance, especially in C-RAN architecture, such as Multi antennas MIMO, Carrier Aggregation, CoMP. However, C -RAN architecture also brings about lager data transmission in the optical fiber. In this paper a low-latency baseband signal compression algorithm used in ALU is introduced to reduce the data rate. Based on the Characteristics of LTE signal data, the algorithm removal redundancies in the spectral domain firstly, and then the block scaling, which is combined with non-linear (nonuniform) quantizer, is designed to minimize quantization error. This algorithm can effectively reduce the amount of data transferred between BBU and RUU in LTE system, to facilitate the deployment of LTE in the CRan architecture. Simulation analysis is given out in the paper; meanwhile TD-LTE system demo verification is also implemented. The results indicate that the scheme introduced can get good performance under a certain compression rate in the real system. Further research is also in progress. View full abstract»

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    Looking at LTE in Practice: A Performance Analysis of the LTE System Based on Field Test Results

    Elnashar, A. ; El-Saidny, M.A.
    Vehicular Technology Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 8 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MVT.2013.2268334
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 81 - 92

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This article introduces a practical performance analysis of the long-term evolution (LTE) cellular system based on field test results from a commercially deployed Third-Generation Partnership Project's (3GPP?s) Release 8 LTE network in Band-3 (i.e., 1,800 MHz, sometimes termed LTE1,800 MHz) with 20-MHz channel bandwidth. The presented analysis demonstrates the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) throughputs in mobility conditions in addition to other aspects of the LTE system such as link budget, cell coverage, spectral efficiency, and handover performance. LTE's key features such as multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) and higher-order modulation [i.e., 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)] are assessed in different radio frequency (RF) conditions. A comparison is presented between LTE and 3GPP Release 8 evolution of high-speed packet access (HSPA+) with a dual-cell high-speed DL packet access (DC-HSDPA) feature based on the universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) 2,100-MHz commercial network with 10-MHz bandwidth (i.e., 2x5-MHz adjacent carriers). The presented LTE network performance analysis and the comparison with the HSPA+ network can be used to benchmark the LTE system performance and evaluate the gains and merits of deploying the LTE network. It has been demonstrated that the LTE system outperforms the HSPA+ system in terms of spectrum efficiency, 64-QAM utilization, cell coverage, and handover delay. The LTE system offers a 34% improvement in spectrum efficiency, 40% 64-QAM utilization versus 7.4% for the HSPA+ system, and a 60% reduction in data interruption time during handover. View full abstract»

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    Performance and Analysis on LTE System under Adjacent Channel Interference of Broadcasting System

    Wei Li ; Jiadi Chen ; Hang Long ; Bin Wu
    Computer and Information Technology (CIT), 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CIT.2012.75
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 290 - 294

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the progress of the standardization of the long term evolution (LTE) system, the interference between the LTE system and other systems is quite important. In China, the LTE system and the broadcasting system may deploy in the same geographical area in adjacent frequency channels around the band of 698 MHz in digital dividend spectrum, which is free up for the conversion from analog TV to digital TV. Therefore, with the deployment of frequency planning, it is urgent to ensure the coexistence between the LTE system and the broadcasting system. This paper is aiming at analyzing the interference from the broadcasting system to the LTE system with different distances between the two systems and different offset distances with Monte Carlo simulations. We calculate the required adjacent channel interference ratio values to achieve 5% throughput loss. Simulation results show that the interference situation of LTE uplink is much more severe than LTE downlink and should be paid more attention. Additionally, it can be improved by locating the broadcasting system transmitter at the LTE system's cell edge. View full abstract»

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    Short paper: A LTE-direct broadcast mechanism for periodic vehicular safety communications

    Gallo, L. ; Harri, J.
    Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 2013 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/VNC.2013.6737604
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 166 - 169

    IEEE Conference Publications

    LTE-Direct is an upcoming LTE rel. 12 extension to allow UEs to communicate directly without going through an eNB. LTE-Direct is expected to be used in future LTE-A networks for unicast Proximity Services, and has not been envisioned so far for broadcast transmissions. In this paper, we propose an eMBMS-inspired mechanism to allocate LTE-Direct resources for dedicated broadcast/multicast vehicular safety communications. The mechanism does not require any connection procedure for LTE-Direct broadcast transmissions, and proposes to reserve identical LTE downlink resources over multiple eNB for dedicated communications between UEs. We apply this concept to the periodic broadcast of BSM/CAM and illustrate that the mechanism's flexibility and extensibility makes LTE-Direct a good complementary technology to DSRC for periodic vehicular safety communications. View full abstract»

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    Effect of LTE service adoption on mobile data traffic in Korea

    Soyoung Park ; Jeongtae Kim
    Computing and Convergence Technology (ICCCT), 2012 7th International Conference on

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1197 - 1200

    IEEE Conference Publications

    After LTE service is launched in many countries, the number of subscribers of LTE service is globally increasing rapidly. Data traffic caused by LTE users is also in a rapid growth, since LTE supports high data rate services such as multimedia applications, web, and data services. Although LTE service contributes to the rapid data traffic increase, the LTE traffic partially substitute for the traffic of traditional mobile communication services such as 2G and 3G. In this paper, we estimate traffic substitution rate of LTE for 3G services in Korea. For that, we first predict the number of subscribers of 3G services assuming that LTE service is not adopted. Then Effect of LTE on subscribers and traffic of traditional mobile services and total mobile traffic in Korea is presented. View full abstract»

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    LTE UL Power Control for the Improvement of LTE/Wi-Fi Coexistence

    Chaves, F.S. ; Almeida, E.P.L. ; Vieira, R.D. ; Cavalcante, A.M. ; Abinader, F.M. ; Choudhury, S. ; Doppler, K.
    Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), 2013 IEEE 78th

    DOI: 10.1109/VTCFall.2013.6692275
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Spectrum sharing is a powerful alternative to deal with the exponential increase on the wireless communication capacity demand. In this context, the coexistence of two of the most prominent wireless technologies today, Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Wi-Fi, is an important research topic. In the most common Wi-Fi network operation, the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF), communication nodes access the channel only if the interference level is below a certain threshold. Then, Wi-Fi operation is severely affected when in coexistence with LTE. This paper proposes the use of LTE uplink (UL) power control to improve LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence. With the introduction of an additional factor to the conventional LTE UL power control, a controlled decrease of LTE UL transmit powers is carried out according to interference measurements, giving opportunity to Wi-Fi transmissions. The proposed LTE UL power control with interference aware power operating point is a flexible tool to deal with the trade-off between LTE and Wi-Fi performances in coexistence, since it is able to set different LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence configurations with the choice of a single parameter. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can provide similar or better performance for both LTE and Wi-Fi networks than a previously proposed interference avoidance mechanism. View full abstract»

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    LTE and hybrid sensor-LTE network performances in smart grid demand response scenarios

    Markkula, J. ; Haapola, J.
    Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2013 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/SmartGridComm.2013.6687955
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 187 - 192

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The paper conducts an evaluation of traffic volumes, delivery ratios, and delays under various demand response (DR) setups using two distinct wireless solutions for smart grid (SG) communications. The first solution considers public long term evolution (LTE) network and the second one considers cluster-based hybrid sensor-LTE network where wireless sensor network (WSN) clusterheads are also equipped with LTE remote terminal units. The DR scenarios reflect cases where certain percentages of end users take part in automated DR-based load balancing while the rest of the users resort to advanced metering infrastructure based energy monitoring. In the DR cases various setups of energy consumption monitoring and load-balancing feedback are simulated. The purpose is to identify the limits of reporting and feedback intervals of the two communications technology setups for DR operations. DR and its management are becoming more important as distributed energy generation becomes more popular in households due to reducing prices of small-scale renewable energy generation equipment. The use of public telecommunications infrastructure is a good candidate for enabling DR communications over SGs, but it is becoming more congested by the increasing mobile data usage of consumers. The results show that both of the solutions have their advantages, LTE communications generally providing a higher delivery ratio whereas, surprisingly, hybrid sensor-LTE communications generally provides lower uplink delay. View full abstract»

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    Real-time scheduling in LTE for smart grids

    Yuzhe Xu ; Fischione, C.
    Communications Control and Signal Processing (ISCCSP), 2012 5th International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ISCCSP.2012.6217872
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The latest wireless network, 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), is considered to be a promising solution for smart grids because it provides both low latency and large bandwidth. However, LTE was not originally intended for smart grids applications, where data generated by the grid have specific delay requirements that are different from traditional data or voice communications. In this paper, the specific requirements imposed by a smart grids on the LTE communication infrastructure is first determined. The latency offered by the LTE network to smart grids components is investigated and an empirical mathematical model of the distribution of the latency is established. It is shown by experimental results that with the current LTE up-link scheduler, smart grid latency requirements are not always satisfied and that only a limited number of components can be accommodated. To overcome such a deficiency, a new scheduler of the LTE medium access control is proposed for smart grids. The scheduler is based on a mathematical linear optimization problem that considers simultaneously both the smart grid components and common user equipments. An algorithm for the solution to such a problem is derived based on a theoretical analysis. Simulation results based on this new scheduler illustrate the analysis. It is concluded that LTE can be effectively used in smart grids if new schedulers are employed for improving latency. View full abstract»

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    Interference evaluation of control channels under the co-existence of LTE-FDD and TD-LTE

    Jie Wei ; Xiaofeng Zhong ; Liaowei Liu ; Xiaolong Fu
    Information Networking (ICOIN), 2014 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICOIN.2014.6799690
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 192 - 196

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the co-existence scenario of LTE-FDD and TD-LTE systems, interference should be one of the most important issues for system throughput. In this work we investigated interference from user equipment (UE) to physical control channels between the two systems: LTE-FDD and TD-LTE. The results show that if the base stations of LTE-FDD and TD-LTE are placed together and they use the adjacent carriers, some of the physical control channels will experience severe adjacent channel interference and therefore unable to be demodulated correctly. We also reached the results of the interference severity of different physical control channels under different adjacent channel interference ratio (ACIR) offset value. View full abstract»

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    Analysis of LTE radio parameters in different environments and transmission modes

    Imtiaz Bin Hamid, N. ; Salele, N. ; Harouna, M.T. ; Muhammad, R.
    Electrical Information and Communication Technology (EICT), 2013 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EICT.2014.6777898
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The ever-growing need for higher data transmission capacity drives the network service providers to build cellular Long term evolution (LTE) networks in urban areas. 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) LTE is the evolution of the UMTS in response to the ever-increasing demand for high speed data and high quality multimedia broadcast services. LTE promises to deliver an unrivalled user experience with ultrafast broadband and very low latency and at the same time, a very compelling business proposition for operators with flexible spectrum bandwidth, smooth migration and the ability to deliver low cost per bit voice and data services. LTE is designed to have wider channels up to 20 MHz, with low latency and packet optimized radio access technology. The peak data rate envisaged for LTE is 100 Mbps in downlink and 50 Mbps in the uplink. LTE has many promising features like bandwidth scalability. It is developed to support both the time division duplex as well as frequency division duplex mode. This paper provides analyses of the performance of radio parameters required for efficient LTE radio planning through numerous simulations in different transmission modes and radio environments. It mainly highlights the throughput and Block Error Rate (BLER) with respect to Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) on the physical layer and in network context through different simulation environments. View full abstract»

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    Feasibility study of relay in 3GPP LTE-advanced from a coexistence perspective

    Wen Li ; Zhangchao Ma ; Shanshan Shen ; Jianyu Li ; Hui Zhao
    Communication Technology and Application (ICCTA 2011), IET International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1049/cp.2011.0690
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 357 - 361

    IET Conference Publications

    Relay technologies have been actively studied and considered as one of the most important technical components in 3GPP LTE-Advanced. LTE Advanced networks with relays and traditional LTE-networks may operate in the same geographical area in adjacent channels. The coexistence issue between the two systems is becoming urgent in the standardization of relay in LTE-advanced. In this paper, the feasibility of relays in LTE-Advanced is studied from a coexistence perspective. We discuss the classification of relays and how they work in the current system in the first place. Then we present the Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio (ACIR) model and the relay coexistence methodology. Different coexistence scenarios when LTE and LTE-Advanced are deployed in adjacent frequency bands are then investigated. Finally, simulation results such as the throughput loss are given with different Radio Frequency (RF) parameters. Simulation results show that relay nodes can coexist with LTE systems under current RF system parameters. View full abstract»

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    Critical analysis of multi-antenna systems in the LTE downlink

    Adhikari, S.
    Internet Multimedia Services Architecture and Applications (IMSAA), 2009 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IMSAA.2009.5439479
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is an emerging 4G wireless access technology. It is showing a lot of promise in field trials and gaining acceptance among the major wireless vendors such as Verizon-Vodafone, NTT-Docomo, KDDI, China Mobile, T-Mobile and others. Multi-Antenna or Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems which involve the use of more than one antenna at the transmitter and receiver are a primary enabler of the high spectral efficiency and data rate sought to be achieved by LTE. This paper is novel in the following 2 aspects: (A) It provides deep physical interpretations into the function and performance of MIMO in LTE. Such insights would not have been published elsewhere in the literature (B) Performance evaluation of MIMO obtained from simulation results based on a full fidelity implementation of the latest version of the LTE Radio Interface standards (3GPP TS 36.211 and 36.213). MIMO performance is explained for various ITU channel models (Pedestrian A, Vehicular A, Typical Urban), Doppler spreads (5, 70, 300 Hz) and antenna correlation conditions (High, Low). The treatment is fully complaint with the specifications laid down in the LTE performance standards 3GPP TS 36.101 and 36.104. The simulated MIMO performance is compared against a twofold system: Theoretical expectations that are derived in this paper and LTE 3GPP performance benchmarks. The author has also compared simulated results with data provided by the LTE-SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) an industry partnership of telecom vendors and operators. The data show a close match. Due to its proprietary nature, such data is not shown in this paper. Readers with access to LSTI data are encouraged to compare them with results provided in this paper. View full abstract»

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