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    Supervisory hybrid systems

    Lemmon, M.D. ; He, K.X. ; Markovsky, I.
    Control Systems, IEEE

    Volume: 19 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/37.777788
    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 42 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (23)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Supervisory hybrid systems are systems generating a mixture of continuous-valued and discrete-valued signals. This systems paradigm is particularly useful in modeling applications where high-level decision making is used to supervise process behavior. Hybrid system methodologies are also applicable to switched systems where the system switches between various setpoints or operational modes to extend its effective operating range. Hybrid systems, therefore, embrace a diverse set of applications. There has been considerable activity in the area of hybrid systems theory, and this article provides an introduction to some of the basic concepts and trends in this emergent field. The term hybrid refers to a mixing of two fundamentally different types of objects or methods. The paper deals with supervisory hybrid systems. Supervisory hybrid systems are systems that combine discrete event and continuous-valued dynamics. The article is organized as follows. We first provide an example of a hybrid system, to be used throughout as a pedagogical tool illustrating various concepts in hybrid systems theory. We then discuss modeling frameworks for hybrid systems, paying specific attention to the hybrid automaton. Not only may the system have a hybrid character, but the specifications on desired system behaviors may also be hybrid. The article also discusses specification logics that express system requirements on both the discrete and continuous states of the system. The article continues with a survey of current methods and concepts used to verify or validate desired system behaviors, and concludes with a survey of current methods for hybrid control system synthesis View full abstract»

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    Systematic Modelling and Controller Designing of Hybrid Power System

    Xiang-zhong Meng ; Yao-bin Yue ; Chang-jun Jiang
    Intelligent Control and Automation, 2006. WCICA 2006. The Sixth World Congress on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/WCICA.2006.1713273
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4696 - 4699

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In recent years, the concept of hybrid power systems have been received and a variety of models have been introduced for hybrid power systems in order to establish a mathematical framework to handle the problem of hybrid systems. This paper propose an approach integrated hybrid Petri nets (HPN) and hybrid automata (HA) to accomplish system modeling and controller design of hybrid power systems. The first part of our contribution is to introduce the concept of CVSTHPN used to describe the schedule modelling problem of the power network. The second part concerns the quantitative analysis of hybrid systems and an algorithm is given for designing system controller View full abstract»

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    Rule-Based Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling PI Controller to Improve Engine Speed and Power Behavior in a Power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Syed, F.U. ; Hao Ying ; Ming Kuang ; Okubo, S. ; Smith, M.
    Fuzzy Information Processing Society, 2006. NAFIPS 2006. Annual meeting of the North American

    DOI: 10.1109/NAFIPS.2006.365423
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 284 - 289
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Environmental awareness has resulted in greater emphasis on developing more environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have been considered a viable option towards achieving these goals. Ford Motor Company developed a full hybrid electric vehicle with an e-CVT (electronically controlled continuously variable transmission) or power-split hybrid powertrain with an integrated motor and generator. The power-split hybrid system uses planetary gear sets to connect an engine, a generator, and a motor. This HEV powertrain exhibits great potential to improve fuel economy by enabling the engine to operate at its most efficient region independent of the vehicle speed. To achieve fuel economy improvements of the power-split hybrid system, high-voltage (HV) battery power management is critical. To control actual HV battery power in such vehicles, a sophisticated control system is essential which controls engine power and thereby engine speed to achieve the desired HV battery maintenance power. Conventional approaches use proportional-integral (PI) control systems to control the actual HV battery power in power-split hybrid system, which can sometimes result in either overshoots of engine speed and power or degraded response and settling times due to the nonlinearity of the power-split hybrid system. Such an overshoot is often objectionable to customers, which see engine speed overshoots as disconnect between the driver's request and the engine response. This issue comes from the fact that a complete high fidelity mathematical model for the power-split HEV system along with the environmental effects cannot be accurately modeled inside the controller. Therefore, a controller adaptable to nonlinear behavior and not requiring detailed knowledge of mathematical model of the plant is required to address such issues. Fuzzy control approaches can provide a way to cope with the limitations of the conventional controllers. We have developed a fu- zzy control approach with minimal rules to intelligently control engine power and speed behavior in a powersplit HEV. This approach uses selective minimal rule-based fuzzy gain-scheduling to determine appropriate gains for the PI controller based on the system's operating conditions. The improvements result in the reduction of the overshoots without compromising system's response and settling times in comparison with the conventional linear PI controller. This paper describes the power-split hybrid vehicle's powertrain system and key subsystems. It also describes minimal rule-based fuzzy gain-scheduling PI controller and the formulation of minimal fuzzy rules required to achieve the desired behavior. This minimal rule-based fuzzy controller was implemented in a Ford Escape hybrid vehicle and was evaluated in the vehicle test environment for a comparative analysis of the results to show its effectiveness. The results clearly demonstrate that the designed minimal rule based fuzzy gains scheduling controller is capable of significantly improving the engine speed and power behavior in a power-split HEV without compromising the system's response and settling times View full abstract»

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    Development of design tool for hybrid power systems of hybrid electric military combat vehicles

    Dong Hwan Choi ; Seong Jun Lee ; Bo-Hyung Cho ; Yeo Giel Yoon
    Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2010 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/VPPC.2010.5729178
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper introduces a developed hybrid power modeling and simulation tool for series hybrid electric military combat vehicles. A simulation tool for determining optimal hybrid power in hybrid components such as motor, engine, generator, and storages and for evaluating designed driving control strategy and energy management strategy is essential in designing a hybrid system. The developed tool is based on the MATLAB/Simulink with simple GUI interface. It supports various series hybrid structures of military vehicles, driving cycles, and driving control strategies. It supports two types of analysis methods: a forward facing method and a backward facing method. In this research, in order to determine the motor's power and spec, the developed tool is incorporated with the commercial multibody dynamics software, VirtualLab/Motion developed by LMS International. The objectives of the iterative works between design of optimal hybrid power systems and optimal driving control strategy include reducing the overall fuel consumption and optimizing the mobility performance to cost, mass and volume space claims of the vehicles' power systems, and enabling those vehicles with enhanced electrical power generation and storage capabilities useful for field operations, too. A 20ton 8×8 series hybrid electric vehicle is considered as design example. This paper shows the results of determined hybrid components' power and shows the SOC variation and fuel efficiency for various driving strategies. View full abstract»

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    An analytic foundation for the Two-mode hybrid transmission with a comparison to other hybrid vehicle power split transmissions

    Aimin Du ; Hongwei Cai
    Transportation, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering (TMEE), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/TMEE.2011.6199324
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 803 - 808
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The new hybrid system developed by General Motor, Daimler-Chrysler and BMW recently is called Two-mode hybrid transmission, named as “Technology of the year” for 2007 by Automobile Magazine. The Two-mode hybrid transmission, contains two electric machines, three planetary gear units and four electrically controlled clutches, allows six different operation modes: two electrically variable transmission modes and four fixed-gear modes. The purpose of this present paper is to explain the basics of Two-mode hybrid transmissions, input-split and compound-split modes, and the addition of fixed-gear ratios, thereby presenting an analytic foundation for its operation. And the same time, the dynamic equations of the new system is derived, which can be use in modeling the Two-mode hybrid transmission for developing control strategy. Other hybrid vehicle power split transmissions being considered by auto companies, such as Toyota hybrid system-II, are also discussed, in order to make a comparison with Two-mode hybrid transmission. View full abstract»

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    Stabilizing Dynamic Controllers for Hybrid Systems: A Hybrid Control Lyapunov Function Approach

    Di Cairano, S. ; Heemels, W.P.M.H. ; Lazar, M. ; Bemporad, A.
    Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 59 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1109/TAC.2014.2324111
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2629 - 2643

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper proposes a dynamic controller structure and a systematic design procedure for stabilizing discrete-time hybrid systems. The proposed approach is based on the concept of control Lyapunov functions (CLFs), which, when available, can be used to design a stabilizing state-feedback control law. In general, the construction of a CLF for hybrid dynamical systems involving both continuous and discrete states is extremely complicated, especially in the presence of non-trivial discrete dynamics. Therefore, we introduce the novel concept of a hybrid control Lyapunov function, which allows the compositional design of a discrete and a continuous part of the CLF, and we formally prove that the existence of a hybrid CLF guarantees the existence of a classical CLF. A constructive procedure is provided to synthesize a hybrid CLF, by expanding the dynamics of the hybrid system with a specific controller dynamics. We show that this synthesis procedure leads to a dynamic controller that can be implemented by a receding horizon control strategy, and that the associated optimization problem is numerically tractable for a fairly general class of hybrid systems, useful in real world applications. Compared to classical hybrid receding horizon control algorithms, the proposed approach typically requires a shorter prediction horizon to guarantee asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system, which yields a reduction of the computational burden, as illustrated through two examples. View full abstract»

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    Development of a single-mode full hybrid system

    Han Bing ; Zhang Tong ; Cai Yixi
    Electric Information and Control Engineering (ICEICE), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICEICE.2011.5777114
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2108 - 2111

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction is one of the most promising technologies, which has significant improvements in vehicle performance, energy utilization efficiency, and polluting emissions as well. What type of hybrid system be might suitable for conventional driveline system, hybrid driveline and pure electrical driveline? Is there a hybrid system which is not only suitable for all of these drivelines but also can be easily adjusted to all necessary development steps in the future? A possible answer is to a new electronic-continuously variable hybrid transmission with power splitting function and, using shift elements for various driving modes. This hybrid system is already tested in a first application. This text addresses the new full hybrid transmission system and its control strategy. View full abstract»

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    Hybrid Vehicle Power Transmission Modeling and Simulation with SimulationX

    Li, Wenyong ; Abel, A. ; Todtermuschke, K. ; Tong Zhang
    Mechatronics and Automation, 2007. ICMA 2007. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICMA.2007.4303808
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1710 - 1717
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The holistic system of the hybrid power train must be investigated in order to optimize important functionalities such as boost, recovery brake energy, start-stop ability or pure electrical driving, downsizing of the combustion engine and E-machines. For this reason a multi-domain simulation model is necessary, by which the useful results for the design of hybrid electric vehicle can be offered to automobile manufacturer. As an important example, the first version of the Toyota Hybrid System of PRIUS is modelled by a multidomain software "ITI-SimulationX" in this paper. The concepts of hybrid synergy drive, especially an engine with dynamic characteristics, electric machine, planetary set and their control strategy are modelled. The modelling process shows that the unknown values of engine parameters in the model can be identified and validated. The complex interactions among the components are taken into account in a complete multidomain model. The simulation models provide an access to almost any physical quantity in the system. In the real powertrain only very few of them are accessible to measurements, so the insight into the system gets much deeper using simulation. Based on simulation models, the changes in the component design and hybrid control strategy can be easily evaluated, even in early design phases and without having to use a prototype. This allows an efficient pre-selection among different hybrid concepts and the optimal dimensioning of electrical machines and engine (e.g. rated power) of the hybrid power transmission. View full abstract»

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    Configuration hybrid solar system (PV), wind turbine, and diesel

    Yogianto, A. ; Budiono, H. ; Aditya, I.A.
    Power Engineering and Renewable Energy (ICPERE), 2012 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICPERE.2012.6287241
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The use of renewable energy in power plant are starting to be developed and continually added capacity in parallel with the existing diesel. Lately, the combination of solar power photovoltaic (PV) and diesel generator hybrid is the most widely installed. Another combination is with wind turbine which relatively limited in some locations. The combination of renewable energy and the existing diesel power system is related with hybrid configuration due to the operating system. Configuration of imprecise plant combination will cause operating system becomes not optimal. Therefore the further study to evaluate the existing configuration and provide the results of an appropriate configuration for the operation of the hybrid system. The results obtained are the configuration dc/ac on a hybrid system that is connected to the network, more appropriate applied to small-scale hybrid power systems. AC Configuration is more suitable applied to the hybrid system which has a medium to large capacity by optimizing the power converter. The configuration of hybrid systems, PV systems can be upgraded with a PV multiarray reliability. In hybrid system ac bus configuration, the reliability of centralized inverter PV system can be enhanced by the parallel inverter. View full abstract»

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    Combining hybrid Petri nets and hybrid automata

    Sava, A.T. ; Alla, H.
    Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 17 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/70.964667
    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 670 - 678
    Cited by:  Papers (11)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Hybrid systems have received much attention and a number of different models have been proposed in order to establish a mathematical framework which is able to handle both continuous and discrete aspects. Our research is focused on two models: hybrid automata and hybrid Petri nets (hybrid PNs). First, we deal with studying the hybrid PN functioning. An algorithm is proposed for constructing the hybrid automaton associated with a given hybrid PN. Next, we present the quantitative analysis of hybrid systems modeled by hybrid PN. The approach uses the reachability analysis of hybrid automaton to characterize the periodic functioning of a hybrid PN View full abstract»

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    Hybrid powertrain control with a rapid prototyping research platform

    Yu Wang ; Xingyong Song ; Zongxuan Sun
    American Control Conference (ACC), 2011

    DOI: 10.1109/ACC.2011.5991490
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 997 - 1002

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As one of the most promising approaches for reducing automotive fuel consumption, hybrid powertrain has inspired extensive research efforts on system control and energy optimization. However, the time and cost of constructing or modifying a physical hybrid powertrain seriously affects the experimental investigation of the complicated system dynamics, so as to limit the development of the precise hybrid powertrain control and optimization. To provide an accurate and flexible hybrid powertrain emulation tool for developing the hybrid control methodologies, a rapid prototyping hybrid powertrain research platform, which employs a transient hydrostatic dynamometer to emulate the dynamics of various hybrid power sources and different hybrid architectures, is constructed. In this research platform, a three-level closed-loop control system is designed for realizing the hybrid powertrain emulation. With respect to the high/middle/low level systems, a suite of hybrid powertrain controllers including an adaptive driver model, an energy optimization strategy, a virtual hybrid torque controller and a dynamometer torque controller are designed and, further, their interactions are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed control system can achieve the precise emulation of the typical hybrid powertrain operation. View full abstract»

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    Fuel cell triple hybrid drive train for motorcycle

    Weigl, J.D.
    Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), 2014 Ninth International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EVER.2014.6844118
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Motorcycles with electric drive are a clear advantage for cities, because of locally no emissions and driving with minimum noise pollution. This is especially known in South-East-Asian cities with strong motorcycle traffic [1]. But pure battery electric motorcycles have a significant range problem. This problem can be overcome with a hydrogen fuel cell hybrid system. Motorcycles in city driving have a very sharp load profile from extreme acceleration and sudden deceleration. To cater for this extreme load profile a triple hybrid systems with fuel cell, ultra capacitor and battery, have been developed and extensive tested. Tests of the triple hybrid system show a comparable acceleration and top speed performance in comparison to an battery - fuel cell only hybrid design. Additionally in the triple hybrid the load cycle energy on the hybrid battery can be reduced by 48% in exurban drive cycle test. An ultra capacitor - fuel cell hybrid only cannot provide the same performance as the triple hybrid or the battery - fuel cell hybrid. View full abstract»

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    Exploiting set-level write non-uniformity for energy-efficient NVM-based hybrid cache

    Jianhua Li ; Liang Shi ; Xue, C.J. ; Chengmo Yang ; Yinlong Xu
    Embedded Systems for Real-Time Multimedia (ESTIMedia), 2011 9th IEEE Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ESTIMedia.2011.6088521
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 19 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Hybrid cache architectures have been proposed to mitigate the increasing on-chip power dissipation through the exploitation of the emerging non-volatile memories (NVMs). To overcome the high energy and long latency associated with write operations of NVMs, a small SRAM is typically incorporated into the hybrid cache for accommodating write-intensive cache blocks. How to efficiently manage this SRAM and manipulate the write operations are crucial to the performance of the hybrid cache. In this paper, we first present our observation that the intensity of write operations on different cache sets is usually non-uniform for real applications, such as multimedia, multi-programmed, multithreaded applications. The previously proposed hybrid cache schemes can not efficiently and symmetrically utilize the small SRAM to accommodate such widely-existing non-uniform writes on cache sets. Based on this observation, we propose a novel hybrid cache design, Dual Associative Hybrid Cache (denoted as DAHYC), as well as the corresponding cache management policy. By organizing the SRAM blocks in the hybrid cache as a semi-independent set-associative cache, several hybrid cache sets can efficiently share and cooperatively utilize their SRAM blocks, instead of exclusively utilizing the SRAM blocks in each cache set in previous hybrid cache schemes, to boost power-efficiency. Through prudently manipulating the locality information of SRAM blocks in both the NVM sets and the SRAM sets, the proposed cache management policy also delivers high-performance. Experimental results show that, compared with previous works, the DAHYC can reduce the dynamic power of the hybrid cache by 24.8% on average and up to 54% for SPEC2000 INT benchmarks, while at the same time improving the performance of the hybrid cache by 1.16% on average. View full abstract»

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    Enabling Multi-Hop Communications through Cross-Layer Design for Hybrid WSNs with Transmit-Only Nodes

    Jia Zhao ; Chunming Qiao ; Seokhoon Yoon ; Sudhaakar, R.S.
    Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), 2011 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2011.6133950
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Simple yet cost effective hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) with both standard nodes and transmit-only nodes are promising for their great potential as the "edge" of the "Internet of Things". However the lack of receivers at many transmit-only nodes in the hybrid network renders most existing MAC protocols invalid. Our previous efforts showed the benefits of this hybrid architecture for building single-hop efficient and reliable hybrid WSN cluster for QoS aware applications. This work explores the capability of building multi-hop communications in a hybrid WSN with multiple clusters (where each cluster consists of a sink as well as a certain number of standard nodes and transmit-only nodes) via a cross-layer protocol design. The proposed M-QoMoR protocol and HPAssist scheme are built based on the resource information from the underlying MAC layer. Through the analysis and extensive simulations, we showed that the hybrid WSN architecture can efficiently support multi-hop communications across multiple hybrid clusters. It also achieves certain performance boost that is not viable in the previous single hybrid WSN clusters. View full abstract»

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    Power electronics for hybrid-drive systems

    Renken, F. ; Wolf, J.
    Power Electronics and Applications, 2007 European Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2007.4417693
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Today many car manufacturers consider automobiles with combined drive systems consisting of combustion engine and electrical machine as a trend-setting concept. These hybrid vehicles are characterized by its good driving dynamics, economical fuel consumption and environmental-friendliness. Depending on performance class and drive structure, there are different systems available: micro-hybrid, mild-hybrid, full-hybrid, series-hybrid and also series/parallel-hybrid. Due to this large variety of drive systems Siemens VDO Automotive has decided to develop a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) platform with a modular concept. This concept is useful for all of these different hybrid systems. Electronic converters have a significant role in this modular platform, because the overall power between the board-net and electric machine must be regulated by a DC/AC converter. To implement the motor operation together with the generator operation the converter must be able to operate bi-directionally. This enables system functions like electric drive, combustion engine-start, starting support, regenerative braking and start/stop functions in city traffic. The first steps of the modular platform were realized with practical project experience together with car manufacturers. This paper gives a rough overview about hybrid systems and shows the development status of power electronic converters. View full abstract»

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    Study of control strategy for hybrid energy storage in wind- photovoltaic hybrid streetlight system

    Guosheng Tian ; Xinping Ding ; Jian Liu
    Open-Source Software for Scientific Computation (OSSC), 2011 International Workshop on

    DOI: 10.1109/OSSC.2011.6184698
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 77 - 81

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A hybrid energy storage with super capacitor and batteries for energy storage unit in wind-pv hybrid streetlight system has been presented. Hybrid energy storage system with super capacitor is given priority to, supplemented by the batter provide adequate, stable and reliable energy guarantee for wind-pv hybrid streetlight system. With this technique a lighter and smaller energy storage system can be achieved which enhances the performance of wind-pv hybrid streetlight system. Super capacitor has drawn more and more attention on energy storage systems because of its advantages of high power density, high charging speed, long service life and small size, light weight and extremely high cycling capability. In this way the batteries can ensure only the average power and the super capacitors can ensure the power variations. When power is greatly change, super capacitors have energy storage buffer action. Storing capacity of super capacitor and variable current control function of parallel controller can reduce times of tiny battery charging and discharging, reduce the discharge depth, prolong the service life of the battery, which basiciy solved the problem of wind-pv hybrid streetlight system. The lifetime of the batteries, weight and volume of the HESS in wind-pv hybrid streetlight can thus been improved. The simulation results verified the validity of proposed control strategy. View full abstract»

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    Ultracapacitors in micro-and mild hybrids with lead-acid batteries: Simulations and laboratory and in-vehicle testing

    Burke, A. ; Miller, M. ; Hengbing Zhao ; Radenbaugh, M. ; Zhengmao Liu
    Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), 2013 World

    DOI: 10.1109/EVS.2013.6914961
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 14

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper describes work directed toward the demonstration of ultracapacitors in a 2001 Honda Insight. The general approach used in this project is to replace the NMH battery with ultracapacitor modules maintaining the 12V lead-acid battery to power the accessories. Both the ultracapacitors and the 12V battery will be recharged from the electric motor/generator driven by the engine. The Insight is being modified so that it can operate as a stop-start hybrid with and without power assist and as a mild hybrid using the full power capability of its 10 kW electric motor. In the case of the start-stop hybrid, the modified Insight will use 16V ultracapacitor modules; in the case of the mild hybrid, the vehicle will use 48V modules as part of a 176V electric driveline. The energy storage units have been tested in the laboratory using cycles appropriate for the vehicle tests. The energy storage and maximum power capability of each of the storage units was found to be sufficient to meet the project requirements at high efficiency for the vehicle test cycles. Careful laboratory testing of the vehicle systems is being performed in the laboratory using a Bitrode battery tester, which controls the discharge of the ultracapacitors and the lead-acid battery and provides for their appropriate charge as specified in the control strategy for the system. The Honda Insight has been equipped with a modified on-board diagnostics (OBD) readout unit which plugs into the standard OBD port in the vehicle. The readout displays conventional engine and electric driveline component data. A MIMA (Manual Integrated Motor Assist) kit, which has been installed in the Insight, permits the driver to modify and control manually the operation of the hybrid powertrain via a manual joy stick. A circuit board, which will replace the joystick with a programmed digital signal, is being developed. The operation of the Honda Insight has been simulated using the Advisor program, which has been modified at UC - avis to treat various hybrid drivelines including the micro-HEV and the mild hybrid cases. The simulation results indicate that the fuel economy of the micro-hybrid can be significantly higher than the conventional ICE vehicle, but significantly lower than that of a mild-hybrid using a higher power electric motor and a more extensive energy storage unit (battery or ultracapacitor). The simulations indicate that the fuel economies of the mild-hybrid using the NMH battery or the ultracapacitors are not expected to be much different. View full abstract»

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    Study on Method of Digital/Analog Hybrid Simulation for the Ultra-High Voltage Grid

    Hu Tao ; Yin Yong-hua ; Jiang Wei-ping ; Zhu Yi-ying ; Zhang Jin-hua
    Power System Technology and IEEE Power India Conference, 2008. POWERCON 2008. Joint International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICPST.2008.4745373
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    For the feasibility study of planning UHV (Ultra-High Voltage) AC/DC hybrid grid, real time simulation test using digital/analog hybrid simulator should be implemented other than offline simulation. The digital/analog hybrid simulator includes digital models, analog simulator, and interface devices. Limited by the testing equipment, dynamic-equivalent should be accomplished first for the grid to be studied. After the parameter proportion between simulation system and real system has been confirmed, the digital/analog hybrid simulation models should be built in term of the reduced grid, then the study on the characteristic and mechanism of AC/DC hybrid grid can be implemented. Exampled by the project of "real-time simulation research on the UHVDC feasibility of Jinshajiang phase I and Jinping power transmission", the digital/analog hybrid simulation model of the planed UHV, AC/DC hybrid grid will be introduced, then the conclusion of the test will be given. With the development of modern computer and information technology, full-digital real time simulation technology has great development. Limited by the simulation speed and precision for HVDC system, the full-digital real time simulator can not fully replace digital/analog simulator. So the improved digital/analog hybrid method was brought forward. To integrate the full-digital real time simulation technology and HVDC analog simulation technology, new hybrid interface should be developed, which will enhance the ability for the study of big scale AC/DC hybrid network. View full abstract»

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    Efficiency enhancement of a new two-motor hybrid system

    Higuchi, N. ; Shimada, H.
    Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), 2013 World

    DOI: 10.1109/EVS.2013.6914902
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 11

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A new two-motor hybrid system is developed to maximize powertrain efficiency. Efficiency of the system is drastically enhanced without any driving performance sacrifices by switching driving modes from "Hybrid Drive" to "EV (Electric vehicle) Drive" or "Engine Drive" according to the driving condition, along with the application of a series hybrid based system to make full use of high flexibility of engine operating points. Basic concepts of the maximization of powertrain efficiency including an applied system configuration and control technologies are discussed in this paper. Along with this system, a high capacity Li-ion battery and an on-board charger are installed in 2014 Honda Accord Plug-In to add practical plug-in HEV capabilities. Superior fuel economy is achieved with values of 46 MPG (Miles Per Gallon) in CS (Charge Sustaining) mode, 115 MPGe (Miles Per Gallon equivalent) in CD (Charge Depleting) mode and 13miles of AER (All Electric Range). MPGe is a unit of fuel economy for the alternate fuel vehicles such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles or electric vehicles. The ratings are calculated by converting used electric energy into equivalent amount of gasoline. View full abstract»

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    Development of an in-series hybrid urban bus model and its correlation with on-board testing results

    Resino Zamora, D. ; Lopez Martinez, J.M. ; Loboguerrero Carrasco, C.J. ; Delgado Vaca, J.J.
    Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), 2013 World

    DOI: 10.1109/EVS.2013.6914852
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 11

    IEEE Conference Publications

    New emission standards implemented in EU has resulted in an increasing use of passenger hybrid vehicles as well as hybrid heavy-duty transport vehicles. Manufacturers have been offering a wide range of efficient and lower emission vehicles to fulfil these Regulations. Besides commercial vehicles, it it's also important to consider the use and implementation of hybrid urban buses because it is a massive way of transportation that is used every day in the bigger cities. The use of hybrid urban buses is significant to achieve the goal for lower emissions and better energy efficiency, due to the city utilization involves several stops and accelerations. This paper considers the comparison between the results obtained from software simulation of a complete in-series hybrid urban bus platform (develop under AVL Cruise® software) and the data obtained from real on-board measurements made in the city of Madrid. The model involves an in-series hybrid electric bus, meaning that the propulsion system is supplied by an electric motor which receives energy from a stored source (battery). The analysis of the results shows a very accuracy approach and lower emission vehicle, with an error below 5% in fuel consumption modelling a real driving cycle up to 8km. View full abstract»

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    Comparative Investigation of Series and Parallel Hybrid Electric Drive Trains for Heavy-Duty Transit Bus Applications

    Williamson, S.S. ; Wirasingha, S.G. ; Emadi, A.
    Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2006. VPPC '06. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/VPPC.2006.364354
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (7)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In recent times, diesel powered hybrid electric vehicles have attracted their fair share of attention from automakers worldwide. It is a well-known fact that diesel hybrid technology is being used increasingly to improve the performance of a number of city transit buses. The exclusive combination of advanced diesel engines and sophisticated hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies holds much promise for dramatic reductions in both emissions as well as fuel consumption. Currently, transit bus manufacturers incorporate the popularly accepted series or parallel hybrid electric drive train architectures for hybridization depending on specific performance demands. From the point of view of heavy-duty vehicular drive train hybridization, a major debate in the auto industry involves analyzing and comparing both the series as well as parallel HEV systems. Keeping this issue in mind, this paper aims to comprehensively investigate and evaluate series and parallel hybrid electric drive train topologies for heavy-duty diesel transit buses from the point of view of overall efficiency and parametric performance studies. In general, the vital proposal of this paper involves the depiction of suitability of parallel hybrid drive trains over series hybrid drive trains, more specific to city transit bus applications View full abstract»

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    Research on hybrid modulation strategies based on general hybrid topology of multilevel inverter

    Zhou Jinghua ; Li Zhengxi
    Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2008. SPEEDAM 2008. International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SPEEDHAM.2008.4581236
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 784 - 788
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Based on the research on several multilevel basic topologies, this paper presents a general type of multilevel hybrid topology and introduces several selectable degrees of freedom. No matter what change in the hybrid topology it can be resulted in the combination and selection of the degrees of freedom, which expands the topology collection of the multilevel inverter. According to the degrees of freedom, all the cascaded topologies have been unified and several new types of hybrid topologies have been constructed. Based on the research on the hybrid topologies and multi-carrier SPWM (Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation) used for the multilevel inverter, this paper presents the hybrid modulation strategies for hybrid topologies. Simulation results prove that hybrid topologies and corresponding modulation strategies are effective, which lay the foundation for practical application of hybrid multilevel inverter topologies. View full abstract»

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    Hybrid Relation Calculus

    Jifeng He
    Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS), 2013 18th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICECCS.2013.10
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. Hybrid systems are composed by continuous physical component and discrete control component where the system state evolves over time according to interacting law of discrete and continuous dynamics. Combinations of computation and control can lead to very complicated system designs We treat more explicit hybrid models by providing a hybrid relation calculus, where both clock and signal are introduced to coordinate activities of various components of hybrid systems. This paper presents a hybrid parallel programming language with a set of novel combinators to model physical world and its interaction with the control program. We discuss the algebraic properties of the language, and show how to convert a hybrid automata to a hybrid program. The paper also demonstrates how to transform a hybrid program into a normal form using the algebraic laws of the language, and explores the link between the hybrid relation calculus and the classical relation calculus. View full abstract»

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    Downsizing fuel cell capacity in a hybrid hydrogen vehicle by regenerative energy capture with super capacitor

    Wei Wu ; Bucknall, R.W.G.
    Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), 2014 49th International Universities

    DOI: 10.1109/UPEC.2014.6934621
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As phase one of the CHIC (Clean hydrogen in European cities) project, eight Fuel Cell (FC) hybrid buses on route RV1 have been put in service in central London. One of the next steps is to assess and determine the viability of switching from conventional diesel-technology to fuel cell technology on other bus routes in London. This paper reports on a study where a laboratory sized FC hybrid system modelled on the London hydrogen bus (RV1) is used to explore potential opportunities. Specifically, this paper examines the performance and optimization of a FC hybrid propulsion solution having a smaller FC and various energy storage arrangements. The proposed design is a series hybrid system for the urban driving environment, with focus on transit buses. A Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) has been selected with a Super Capacitor (SC) as the energy storage technology. The hybrid propulsion system has also been simulated in PSCAD and the model validated using the laboratory sized system. Of particular focus is the control strategy of the hybrid propulsion system to optimise power delivery efficiency during operation and optimise hydrogen consumption. The paper concludes by examining how FC technology can be applied to transit buses with the model validated by experiment and evaluation of the viability of adapting the technology technically. This is a project that is being progressed and this paper will focus on simulation part of the project. View full abstract»

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    Hybrid test application in hybrid delay scan design

    Yoshikawa, Y. ; Nuwa, T. ; Ichihara, H. ; Inoue, T.
    Test Symposium (ETS), 2010 15th IEEE European

    DOI: 10.1109/ETSYM.2010.5512744
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 247

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The hybrid delay scan design in which some flip flops (FFs) are controlled as skewed-load FFs and the others are controlled as broad-side FFs was proposed. Noticing that the hybrid delay scan design potentially has a capability of two test application modes: one is the broad-side test mode, and the other is the hybrid test mode, we present a hybrid test application of the two test modes in the hybrid delay scan design. In addition, we also address a way of skewed-load FF selection based on propagation dominance of FFs in order to take advantage of the hybrid test application. Experimental results for ITC'99 benchmark circuits show that the proposed hybrid scan design with the hybrid test application can achieve higher fault coverage than the previous hybrid scan design. View full abstract»

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