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    Swapping Strategy to Improve I/O Performance of Mobile Embedded Systems Using Compressed File Systems

    Ohhoon Kwon ; Yunjung Yoo ; Kern Koh
    Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, 2008. RTCSA '08. 14th IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/RTCSA.2008.17
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 169 - 176

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Compressed file systems are suitable for mobile embedded systems with small capacity of storage systems because the contents of files are stored in a compressed form to save the space of storage in the compressed file systems. Therefore a data should be decompressed before it is accessed by an application program. That is a computational overhead of compressed file systems. Furthermore, the mobile embedded systems exploit demand paging mechanism to cut down their cost and size as well as the compressed file systems. And also, to extend a main memory space, the mobile embedded systems use "swapping" mechanism which stores the data evicted from a main memory in a swap area, and serves the data when the application requests it again. In this paper, we propose the new swapping strategy for the mobile embedded systems using the compressed file systems, which aims to keep the decompressed data of compressed file systems in the swap space and serves them directly from the swap space if necessary. This strategy reduces several copying overhead and decompressing operation of compressed file systems. As a result, it could improve the I/O performance of mobile embedded systems. Trace-driven simulations show that the proposed strategy performs better than existing swapping mechanism in terms of the total I/O performance, page fault ratio, and page fault latency. View full abstract»

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    A Lab Project on the Design and Implementation of Programmable and Configurable Embedded Systems

    Sousa, L. ; Antao, S. ; Germano, J.
    Education, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 56 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TE.2012.2222411
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 322 - 328
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Several courses on embedded systems have been planned and taught to students in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Master's programs. The tutorials play an important role in these courses, not only to motivate the students, but also to expose them to the difficulties and challenges of designing real embedded systems. This paper presents a complete lab project used over the last 15 years in a semester-long course on embedded systems that, for historical reasons, was titled Computer Electronics. This project involves all the topics studied in this course, namely programmable, configurable and dedicated processors, memory technology and organization, peripherals, and the design and implementation of complete embedded systems. Targeting image processing as a case study, in this lab project students use field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to design real-time embedded systems based on soft-cores, hardware accelerators, and specific input and output peripherals. Analyzing the results over the last years, it can be concluded that the inclusion of this transversal lab project boosts the interest in this Master's course and encourages the students to learn the topics required to design real embedded systems. View full abstract»

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    Architecture-based semantic evolution: a study of remotely controlled embedded systems

    Chung, L. ; Subramanian, N.
    Software Maintenance, 2001. Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICSM.2001.972784
    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 663 - 666
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Evolution of a software system is a natural process. In many systems evolution occurs during the working phase of their lifecycles. Such systems need to be designed to evolve, i.e., adaptable. Semantically adaptable systems are of particular interest to industry as such systems adapt themselves to environmental change with little or no intervention from their developers. Research in embedded systems is now becoming widespread but developing semantically adaptable embedded systems presents challenges of its own. Embedded systems usually have a restricted hardware configuration, hence techniques developed for other types of systems cannot be directly applied to embedded systems. This paper briefly presents the work done in semantic adaptation of embedded systems, using remotely controlled embedded systems as an application. In this domain, an embedded system is connected to an external controller via a communication link such as ethernet, serial, radio frequency, etc., and receives commands from, and sends responses to, the external controller. Techniques for semantic evolution in this application domain give a glimpse of the complexity involved in tackling the problem of semantic evolution in embedded systems. The techniques developed in this paper were validated by applying them in a real embedded system - a test instrument used for testing cell phones View full abstract»

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    COS: A Configurable OS for Embedded SoC Systems

    Hsin-hung Lin ; Chih-Wen Hsueh
    Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, 2006. Proceedings. 12th IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/RTCSA.2006.24
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 242 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As the increasing of system performance and computing power, embedded systems are more complicated and interactive. Therefore, operating system (OS) plays a more important role in embedded systems to utilize various hardware and software resources. However, no OS can meet all requirements of various embedded systems. Due to the advance of reconfigurable processors, system requirements can be more dynamic. Embedded OS has becoming more critical in the development of embedded systems and thus there is a strong need of configurable embedded OS to better and faster build up the target system. In this paper, we propose a configurable OS, called COS, based on SOA (service-oriented architecture) for embedded SoC (system on a chip) systems to build an application specific OS according to the system requirements. COS can be easily configured to better utilize the resources of the target embedded platform and have better support to the embedded application. Moreover, the COS can easily extend new features or functionalities of other OSes and even be adapted to the designs of other OSes. We implement COS on an ARM platform to prove its configurability and also evaluate its overhead. We believe that COS can be configured to meet the various requirements in embedded SoC systems and help to speed up the embedded system development process View full abstract»

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    A Hardware Platform for Evaluating Low-Energy Multiprocessor Embedded Systems Based on COTS Devices

    Salehi, M. ; Ejlali, A.
    Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 62 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2014.2352215
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1262 - 1269

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Embedded systems are usually energy constrained. Moreover, in these systems, increased productivity and reduced time to market are essential for product success. To design complex embedded systems while reducing the development time and cost, there is a great tendency to use commercial off-the-shelf (“COTS”) devices. At system level, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is one of the most effective techniques for energy reduction. Nonetheless, many widely used COTS processors either do not have DVFS or apply DVFS only to processor cores. In this paper, an easy-to-implement COTS-based evaluation platform for low-energy embedded systems is presented. To achieve energy saving, DVFS is provided for the whole microcontroller (including core, phase-locked loop, memory, and I/O). In addition, facilities are provided for experimenting with fault-tolerance techniques. The platform is equipped with energy measurement and debugging equipment. Physical experiments show that applying DVFS on the whole microcontroller provides up to 47% and 12% energy saving compared with the sole use of dynamic power management and applying DVFS only on the core, respectively. Although the platform is designed for ARM-based embedded systems, our approach is general and can be applied to other types of systems. View full abstract»

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    Attacking embedded systems through fault injection

    Sastry, J.K.R. ; Bhanu, J.S. ; Subbarao, K.
    Emerging Trends and Applications in Computer Science (NCETACS), 2011 2nd National Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/NCETACS.2011.5751374
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Embedded Systems are being used for the development and implementation of Safety and Mission Critical Systems. Malfunctions of such type of embedded systems will lead to disasters at times. The embedded systems must be fully secured from outside intervention in order to have effective functioning as well as to provide protective environment to these mission critical systems. Fault injection attacks are one kind of side channel attacks that affect embedded systems by injecting a fault into the system. There are several kinds of Fault injection attacks that can affect the security of the embedded systems. The kind of side channel attacks that can be induced into embedded systems are dependent on the hardware used and the Applications Software implemented on such hardware. There are several attacking systems discussed in the literature each requiring a kind of counter attacking systems. Most of the attacking systems are not supported by experimental setups. Experimental setups are required as many samples of attacks are to be carried and then the attacking system is proved using the output generated by the application of samples. In this paper, an experimental setup is proposed, using which, the Embedded System can be attacked by the usage of several samples of data through conducting the variations in the supply voltages. The experimental set-up explores theconcept of latch up effect for attacking. A safety critical system for monitoring and controlling of the temperatures within nuclear Reactor System is designed and exposed to the attacking experimental setup. The experimental system is tested using the simulation and the experimental results are published. View full abstract»

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    Universal methodology for embedded system testing

    Karmore, S.P. ; Mabajan, A.R.
    Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2013 8th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCSE.2013.6553974
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 567 - 572

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper describes testing framework that is capable of testing heterogeneous embedded systems. There are three key contributions. The first is the introduction of a new approach of embedded system testing. The second is simple and efficient embedded system classifier interface, named as discovery interface device for embedded system. The third key contribution is a method for combining classifiers in one module, provides environment and testing methodology for embedded system testing. A set of different experiments in the domain of testing of embedded system is presented. This system yields of embedded system testing comparable to the best previous system implemented on traditional embedded software testing tools. This approach is capable to testing of host based and target based embedded systems. View full abstract»

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    Project-Based Learning in Embedded Systems Education Using an FPGA Platform

    Kumar, A. ; Fernando, S. ; Panicker, R.C.
    Education, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 56 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TE.2013.2246568
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 407 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    With embedded systems becoming ubiquitous, there is a growing need to teach and train engineers to be well-versed in their design and development. The multidisciplinary nature of such systems makes it challenging to give students exposure to and experience in all their facets. This paper proposes a generic architecture, containing multiple processors, that allows easy integration of custom and/or predefined peripherals. The architecture allows students to explore both the hardware and software issues associated with real-time and embedded systems. Furthermore, the architecture can be extended to train students in advanced concepts in embedded multiprocessor systems. This generic architecture has been used for two courses at the National University of Singapore-one on real-time embedded systems and the other emphasizing the hardware aspects of embedded systems. The project in the real-time embedded systems course has students develop a five-a-side soccer system on multiple field-programmable gate array (FPGA) boards using embedded processors. In the embedded hardware design course project, students use an embedded processor-based system to perform decryption of a block encrypted image, accelerated through a custom co-processor. The use of displays gives students a visual/interactive experience and a sense of accomplishment, while reinforcing the theoretical concepts. Both qualitative and quantitative assessment results are presented, showing how students perceived these projects and met the learning objectives. View full abstract»

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    Integration of networked embedded systems into power equipment remote control and monitoring

    Jen-Hao Teng ; Chin-Yuan Tseng ; Yu-Hung Chen
    TENCON 2004. 2004 IEEE Region 10 Conference

    Volume: C
    DOI: 10.1109/TENCON.2004.1414834
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 566 - 569 Vol. 3
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Two networked embedded systems for existent power equipment are designed in this paper to achieve the goal of remote control and monitoring. Since the basic requirement of industrial control and monitoring systems is the response time; therefore, time constraint is the first consideration in designing networked embedded systems. Telnet and Web server are the commonly used Internet functions for embedded systems. The embedded Web server based system is definitely the better choice for power equipment control and monitoring. However, due to the response time constraint, memory capacity and processing power of embedded systems, a Telnet based system is also presented in this paper. Since RS232 is the most popular communication media for existent power equipment; the developed embedded system is deigned to communicate with the existent power equipment by RS232. After the data retrieved from the power equipment, the designed system can transmit those data to remote control center via the Internet. The experimental platform shown in this paper is a Samsung S3C4510-based embedded system. The embedded system features uCLinux operating system; therefore, the design and implementation of these proposed networked systems could be more effective. Experimental results show that the designed networked embedded systems can be integrated into power equipment effectively. View full abstract»

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    A middleware design for multiple embedded database systems

    Jhe-Hao Hu ; Chin-Hsien Wu ; Chang-Hong Lin
    Consumer Electronics (ISCE), 2010 IEEE 14th International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ISCE.2010.5522702
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Since embedded systems and consumer electronic devices are popular now, they have adopted huge-capacity storage systems such as flash-memory cards or solid-state drives (SSDs). Many embedded database systems(EDBS) also emerge for the maintenance of data on these storage systems. However, it is complicated and time-consuming to modify an application with one embedded database system to a new one with another embedded database system. In the paper, we will design a middleware for multiple embedded database systems by considering their different interfaces and overhead. With the help of the middleware, it is convenient for users to write applications that can easily adopt various embedded database systems. Furthermore, the middleware can leverage various embedded database systems for better performance and reasonable cost. View full abstract»

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    Application-Specific Wear Leveling for Extending Lifetime of Phase Change Memory in Embedded Systems

    Duo Liu ; Tianzheng Wang ; Yi Wang ; Zili Shao ; Qingfeng Zhuge ; Sha, E.H.-M.
    Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 33 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1109/TCAD.2014.2341922
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1450 - 1462

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Phase change memory (PCM) has been proposed to replace NOR flash and DRAM in embedded systems because of its attractive features. However, the endurance of PCM greatly limits its adoption in embedded systems. As most embedded systems are application-oriented, we can tackle the endurance problem of PCM by exploring application-specific features such as fixed access patterns and update frequencies. In this paper, we propose an application-specific wear leveling technique, called Curling-PCM, to evenly distribute write activities across the whole PCM chip to improve the endurance of PCM in embedded systems. The basic idea is to exploit application-specific features in embedded systems and periodically move the hot region across the whole PCM chip. To reduce the overhead of moving the hot region and improve the performance of PCM-based embedded systems, a fine-grained partial wear leveling policy is proposed for Curling-PCM, by which only part of the hot region is moved during each request handling period. Experimental results show that Curling-PCM can effectively evenly distribute write traffic for a prime application of PCM in embedded systems. We expect this paper can serve as a first step toward the full exploration of application-specific features in PCM-based embedded systems. View full abstract»

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    Performance debugging of parallel and distributed embedded systems

    Suarez, F.J. ; Garcia, D.F. ; Garcia, J.
    Software Engineering for Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2000. Proceedings. International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/PDSE.2000.847858
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 135 - 149

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Validation, a crucial stage in the development cycle of embedded systems, is normally carried out using static analysis based on scheduling techniques. In high performance embedded systems, where several tasks with high computing requirements are working on input and output signals with high sampling rates, parallel and distributed processing is a valuable design alternative in order for the system to achieve the fulfillment of its real-time constraints. When the validation of parallel and distributed embedded systems is considered, many simplifications are made in order to make analysis tractable. This means that even if the system can be statically validated, the real behaviour of the system in execution may be different enough from its theoretical behaviour to make it invalid. Thus, conservative designs that lead to over-dimensioned systems with partially wasted resources are commonly adopted. Although static analysis is the only alternative in case of critical embedded systems, where the fulfillment must be always guaranteed, dynamic analysis, based on measurement, is an interesting alternative for validation of non-critical embedded systems. This paper describes a methodology for performance debugging of parallel and distributed embedded systems with non-critical end-to-end deadlines. The methodology is based on the measurement of a prototype of the system in execution and is supported by a behavioural model View full abstract»

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    A comparison of executable model based approaches for embedded systems

    Fant, J.S. ; Gomaa, H. ; Pettit, R.G.
    Software Engineering for Embedded Systems (SEES), 2012 2nd International Workshop on

    DOI: 10.1109/SEES.2012.6225484
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 16 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Designing and building embedded systems is a challenging problem. Designers must ensure that the software architecture meets its functional requirements and also, since embedded systems often have real-time constraints, meets its performance requirements. It is usually difficult to determine whether or not the embedded system designs will meet functional and performance requirements. To help increase confidence in embedded software architectures, designers often turn to executable model based approaches to assess their systems. There are many different approaches for designing and analyzing real-time embedded systems. This paper is intended to help designers in their choice by comparing two different executable model based approaches for designing and validating real-time embedded systems, namely state machines and colored Petri nets. Both approaches are compared using seven different comparison criteria and examples are given from a cruise control system case study. View full abstract»

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    Designing embedded systems with MARTE: A PIM to PSM converter

    de Medeiros, R. ; Gois, M.M. ; Rossi, D.L. ; Bonato, V.
    Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES), 2012 7th IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SIES.2012.6356602
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 303 - 306

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With the significant increase in complexity of system-on-chip arise the necessity of embedded systems designers to work with more flexible and detailed modelling rules. The MARTE (Modelling and Analysis of Real Time and Embedded Systems) modelling language developed by OMG (Object Management Group) to design embedded systems, supporting realtime constraints, allows specification and integration of models designed on System (Hw/Sw), Hardware(HW) and Software(Sw) levels. This language enables the MDA methodology (Model-Driven Architecture) to be employed for the development of embedded systems in a standard way independently of implementation technology. In this context, this paper presents a work in progress converter, called I2S, in which platform-independent models (PIM) are automatically converted to specific models (PSM) for the Altera and Xilinx platforms, being the latter one still under development. It also describes how the models are specified and interpreted in MARTE and how the PIM to PSM transformations occur. The PSM models generated by the converter are synthesizable to FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) devices, allowing its application to real-world problems. View full abstract»

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    Analysis of cache tuner architectural layouts for multicore embedded systems

    Adegbija, T. ; Gordon-Ross, A. ; Rawlins, M.
    Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC), 2014 IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/PCCC.2014.7017091
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 8

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Due to the memory hierarchy's large contribution to a microprocessor's total power, cache tuning is an ideal method for optimizing overall power consumption in embedded systems. Since most embedded systems are power and area constrained, the hardware and/or software that orchestrate cache tuning - the cache tuner - must not impose significant power and area overhead. Furthermore, as embedded systems increasingly trend towards multicore, inter-core data sharing, communication, and synchronization impose additional cache tuner design complexity, necessitating cross-core cache tuning coordination. In order to minimize cache tuner overhead, cache tuner design must consider these overheads and scalability. Whereas prior work proposes low-overhead cache tuners, scalability to multicore systems requires additional considerations. In this work, we present a low-overhead, scalable cache tuner and extensively evaluate various cache tuner design tradeoffs with respect to power and area for constrained multicore embedded systems. Based on our analysis, we formulate valuable insights and designer-assisted guidelines for modeling scalable and efficient cache tuners that best achieve optimization goals while maintaining power and area constraints. View full abstract»

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    Embedded system design for I&C of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    Sridevi, T. ; Thirugnana Murthy, D. ; Murali, N. ; Satya Murty, S.A.V
    Robotics, Automation, Control and Embedded Systems (RACE), 2015 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/RACE.2015.7097282
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1 - 7

    IEEE Conference Publications

    High dependability on Instrumentation and control (I & C) systems calls utmost importance for smooth functioning as well as the safety of Nuclear power plants. I&C systems are employed for monitoring of the parameters, control of these parameters and protection of the plant and persons. The Embedded systems play major role in design and development of I&C systems. While designing I&C systems of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactors (PFBR), they are categorized into safety critical, safety related and non nuclear safety systems. Since embedded systems are used in safety systems, the hardware and software quality are of paramount importance which ensures safety and availability of the plant. The issues in designing safety systems which calls for high dependability with features like simple, failsafe, high availability to be deployed in mission critical applications. The challenges and issues in employing the embedded systems for PFBR I&C are elaborated in this paper. It discusses the standards and guidelines available for mission critical application and their suitability in adopting the latest technology. This paper also briefs the requirements, architecture, design & development methodology and qualifications of I&C systems of PFBR. The illustrations of the embedded systems designed and developed for PFBR I&C as case study are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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    Notice of Retraction
    The Practice and exploration on the education mode for embedded systems major

    Yan Yu ; Guoliang Shi ; Jianhua Wang ; Jun Zhang
    Education and Management Technology (ICEMT), 2010 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICEMT.2010.5657637
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 367 - 370

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Notice of Retraction

    After careful and considered review of the content of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles.

    We hereby retract the content of this paper. Reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper.

    The presenting author of this paper has the option to appeal this decision by contacting TPII@ieee.org.

    This article introduces status and prospects of current embedded systems industry as well as its professional personnel education status and existing problems in universities and colleges in China, presents embedded systems professionals demand and ability and quality constitutions from enterprises' points of view, introduces the course systems and practice arrangements for embedded systems-majored professional personnel education from Harbin Normal University, and lastly forecasts the future of embedded systems major and proposes the way this industry goes as well. View full abstract»

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    “Fresh air”: The emerging landscape of design for networked embedded systems

    Marculescu, R. ; Nikolic, B. ; Vincentelli, A.-S.
    Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis (CODES+ISSS), 2007 5th IEEE/ACM/IFIP International Conference on

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 124

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As implementation architectures for complex systems evolve towards heterogeneous multiprocessing, let this be on a single chip or on a geographically distributed area, the importance of communication has reached unprecedented peaks. Indeed, due to the complex nature of interaction among its components, any complex system has behaviors that may be highly unpredictable. Dealing with such behaviors requires a deep understanding of various ways to enable communication and account for complex traffic patterns among different components of the system. So far, successful design of many integrated systems has been primarily based on algorithms and design methodologies meant to work under deterministic conditions where communication is considered in an ancillary role. However, in the light of emerging systems and applications (e.g. networked cars and buildings, smart surfaces and dense networks for health monitoring, and multi-core chips at nanoscale) this deterministic, computation-centered mindset no longer offers an appropriate approach. Indeed, such systems are highly distributed and heterogeneous, unreliable and redundant, so new approaches, distributed and stochastic in nature, need to be developed. Consequently, we need to move from a deterministic, computation-centered to a probabilistic, communication-based design paradigm to compensate for the lack of predictable behavior which used to be the norm in traditional systems. We need to consider optimization strategies that work in distributed collaborative networks and find new ways to model communication and traffic distributions in cars, buildings, or chips. Starting from these overarching ideas, this special session is meant to address the concept of probabilistic, communication-centric design in a variety of contexts and identify specific design principles and optimization techniques that are poised to redefine the landscape of system design in the near future. The first talk by A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli addresses- - distributed embedded systems, with particular attention to automotive electronic systems and intelligent buildings. The importance of selecting the communication protocols and architecture is underlined. The design criteria will be examined. The problem of distributing a complex application on a number of networked processing elements that may subjected to faults caused by harsh environments will be analyzed. The talk presents a unified approach to the design of these networks of embedded systems and the recent advances in automatic selection of protocols, topologies and architectures with examples in the automotive and intelligent building domain. The second talk by B. Nikolic addresses challenges in communications systems presented by the way radio spectrum is being shared today. It presents scenarios for the spectrum reuse on a dynamic basis, to achieve a more robust system for massive deployment of wireless terminals. Allocated, but unused portions of the spectrum are used by secondary, cognitive, basis. The ideas of packet multi-hop and spatial multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems will be discussed in this context. The third talk by R. Marculescu focuses on systems designed at nanoscale. The emphasis of presentation is on probabilistic modeling and optimization of emerging systems where communication happens via the NoC approach. Instead of taking the classical path of using queuing models for network optimization, this talk argues in favor of a substantial paradigm shift in network design based on adopting a quantum-like approach to model the information exchange and buffer behavior in NoC platforms. View full abstract»

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    Teaching embedded systems engineering in a software-oriented computing degree

    Fernandes, J.M. ; Machado, R.J.
    Frontiers In Education Conference - Global Engineering: Knowledge Without Borders, Opportunities Without Passports, 2007. FIE '07. 37th Annual

    DOI: 10.1109/FIE.2007.4417949
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): F3H-5 - F3H-10

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Traditional software-oriented computing degrees do not include courses on embedded systems design in their syllabus, since in the past embedded applications were seen as small-sized solutions developed without the need of engineering approaches. This reality has dramatically changed in the last decade and nowadays several embedded systems are quite complex. Embedded systems present several idiosyncrasies that make their development more difficult and complex than desktop solutions, namely when considering non-functional requirements, time-related deadlines, or the correctness of the solution. To be well prepared for their professions, students of software-oriented computing degrees must acquire skills and competencies in embedded systems engineering. Being able to master high-level programming languages and to develop solutions only for desktop computers means that the students cannot consider numerous opportunities, after graduation. This paper discusses which topics in embedded software design to include in a second cycle degree on software engineering that was structured to consider the Bologna declaration that is now being used in Europe to recast all university degrees. The syllabus of a 15-ECTS module dedicated to teach the fundamental concepts of embedded systems engineering and embedded software development is also described. View full abstract»

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    EMSIM: an energy simulation framework for an embedded operating system

    Tan, T.K. ; Raghunathan, A. ; Jha, N.K.
    Circuits and Systems, 2002. ISCAS 2002. IEEE International Symposium on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2002.1011025
    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): II-464 - II-467 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Modern embedded systems are typically built using an operating system (OS) (frequently an embedded OS). As energy consumption has become an important issue in the design of embedded systems (e.g. mobile computing and wireless communication devices), various techniques have been developed for the design of energy-efficient embedded software. In OS-driven embedded systems, the OS has a significant impact on the system's energy consumption directly (energy consumption associated with the execution of the OS functions and services), as well as indirectly (interaction of the OS with the application software). As a first step towards designing energy-efficient OS-based embedded systems, it is important to develop methodologies to analyze the energy consumption of the embedded OS. We present, in this work, an energy simulation framework that can be used to analyze the energy consumption characteristics of an embedded system featuring the embedded Linux OS running on the StrongARM processor View full abstract»

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    Configurable middleware-level intrusion detection for embedded systems

    Naess, E. ; Frincke, D.A. ; McKinnon, A.D. ; Bakken, D.E.
    Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, 2005. 25th IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICDCSW.2005.52
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 144 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Embedded systems have become integral parts of a diverse range of systems. Unfortunately, research on embedded system security, in general, and intrusion detection, in particular, has not kept pace. Embedded systems are, by nature, application specific and therefore frameworks for developing application-specific intrusion detection systems for distributed embedded systems must be researched, designed, and implemented. In this paper, we present a configurable middleware-based intrusion detection framework. First, we present a system model and a concrete implementation of a highly configurable intrusion detection framework that is integrated into MicroQoSCORBA, a highly configurable middleware framework developed for embedded systems. Our framework autogenerates application-specific intrusion detection systems by exploiting application-specific information accessible to the middleware framework (e.g., object interfaces and method signatures). Next, a set of configurable intrusion detection mechanisms suitable for embedded systems is presented. A performance evaluation of these mechanisms is presented at the end of the paper. View full abstract»

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    Systems Architecting Heuristics for Systems Engineering Management and Embedded Systems Engineering

    Dagli, C. ; Anderson, M.S.
    Systems Conference, 2007 1st Annual IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/SYSTEMS.2007.374683
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Software development for United States Air Force (USAF) weapon systems is a "right here, right now" prize captured by those who can rapidly develop requirements and deliver a quality product. The Air Logistics Centers (ALCs) located at Tinker Air Force Base (AFB), Oklahoma, Warner-Robins AFB, Georgia, and Hill AFB, Utah develop requirements utilizing 3400 funding to capture this prize. The ALCs identify these requirements as corrective maintenance or perfective and adaptive maintenance. Colleen A. Calimer and John L. BeVier introduce the concept of the "Embedded Systems Engineer" in their 2004 INCOSE paper "Embedded Systems Engineering: Managing Systems Complexity, Change, and Crises". They present the case that insightful management and utilization of the "embedded" systems engineer is the critical component of successful engineering activity in the dynamic systems environment. This paper applies systems architecting heuristics to systems engineering management to suggest that "embedded" systems engineering is functionally beneficial to the operational demands of maintaining the capability of the Avionics Flight Software (AFS) of the B-1B strategic bomber weapon system. View full abstract»

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    Automated generation of test cases from output domain and critical regions of embedded systems using genetic algorithms

    Vudatha, C.P. ; Jammalamadaka, S.K.R. ; Nalliboena, S. ; Duvvuri, B.K.K. ; Reddy, L.S.S.
    Emerging Trends and Applications in Computer Science (NCETACS), 2011 2nd National Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/NCETACS.2011.5751411
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A primary issue in black-box testing is how to generate adequate test cases from input domain of the system under test on the basis of user's requirement specification. However, for some types of systems including embedded systems, developing test cases from output domain is more suitable than developing from input domain, especially, when the output domain is smaller. Exhaustive testing of the embedded systems in the critical regions is important as the embedded systems must be basically fail safe systems. The Critical regions of the input space of the embedded systems can be pre-identified and supplied as seeds. In this paper, the authors presents an Automated Test Case Generator (ATCG) that uses Genetic algorithms (GAs) to automate the generation of test cases from output domain and the criticality regions of an embedded System. The approach is applied to a pilot project `Temperature monitoring and controlling of Nuclear Reactor System' (TMCNRS) which is an embedded system developed using modified Cleanroom Software Engineering methodology. The ATCG generates test cases which are useful to conduct pseudo-exhaustive testing to detect single, double and several multimode faults in the system. The generator considers most of the combinations of outputs, and finds the corresponding inputs while optimizing the number of test cases generated. View full abstract»

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    Hands-on teaching of embedded systems design using FPGA-Based tPad development kit

    Mahmoodi, H. ; Montoya, A. ; du Franco, J. ; Rodriguez, C. ; Carrillo, J. ; Goel, A. ; Cheng Chen ; Enriquez, A.G. ; Hao Jiang ; Wenshen Pong ; Shanasser, H.
    Interdisciplinary Engineering Design Education Conference (IEDEC), 2012 2nd

    DOI: 10.1109/IEDEC.2012.6186912
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Modern embedded systems design relies on heavy use of Intellectual Property (IP) and involves both hardware and software design. Moreover, three is an increasing unitization of a diverse set of I/O ports in embedded systems including video, audio, Ethernet, etc. In order to reflect these trends in education in a hands-on manner, a platform is needed that allows fast integration of hardware and software, rapid prototyping capability, and rich IP library covering processor cores, I/O interface standards, arithmetic and signal processing functions, etc. The t-pad development kit, by Terasic, which is based on the DE2-115 development board, designed around the Altera's Cyclone IV FPGA, provides a suitable platform for hands-on education of modern embedded systems design. We have developed a series of example-driven hands-on tutorials to guide students to a comprehensive embedded system design flow in a bottom-up fashion. These tutorials were developed and verified by summer interns from Cañada College who spent Summer 2011 at San Francisco State University. The tutorials are currently being used in an embedded systems design course at SFSU. A course project realizing a complex embedded system in teams of no more than four students is an integral part of this course. The results show that using this platform not only generates excitement and motivation in students, but also enhances their learning and teaches them skills of modern embedded systems design. View full abstract»

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    CORBA for real-time, high performance and embedded systems

    Hrustich, C.
    Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, 2001. ISORC - 2001. Proceedings. Fourth IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ISORC.2001.922858
    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 345 - 349
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The development of distributed systems software poses unique challenges due to the diversity of hardware, software, and network protocols in the market today. Achieving interoperability with legacy systems and between systems provided by different vendors has, in the past, required the development of intricate interface specifications or proprietary bridging software. Real time, embedded distributed systems introduce additional performance and resource requirements. Real time systems require the ability to schedule tasks, predict the performance of those tasks, and perhaps most important, predict how the system will react to an overload situation or resource failure. Embedded systems are often characterized by resource constraints, diverse operating systems, and non-TCP/IP transports. Most real time and/or embedded systems share the requirement of reasonably high performance. High performance systems seek the lowest possible communication overhead and streamlined, optimized software layers. The paper discusses how CORBA has evolved to meet all these requirements, and uses ORBexpress CORBA from Objective Interface as a reference implementation of real time, high performance CORBA for embedded developers View full abstract»

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