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    Efficient Object Localization Using Sparsely Distributed Passive RFID Tags

    Po Yang ; Wenyan Wu ; Moniri, M. ; Chibelushi, C.C.
    Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 60 , Issue: 12
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2012.2230596
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 5914 - 5924
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in passive RFID localization application due to its flexible deployment and low cost. However, current passive RFID localization systems cannot achieve both highly accurate and precise moving object localization task owing to tag collisions and variation of the behavior of tags. Most researchers increase the density of tag distribution to improve localization accuracy and then consider using either anti-collision process embedded in the hardware of the RFID reader or advanced localization algorithms to enhance localization precision. However, advanced anti-collision processes for RFID devices are challenged by the physical constraint characteristics of radio frequency; and improved localization algorithm cannot fundamentally reduce the impacts of tag collision on localization precision. This research work attempts to improve localization precision of a passive RFID localization system by using sparsely distributed RFID tags. This paper first defines a measure for accuracy and precision in a passive RFID localization system with regard to RFID tag distribution. An exponential-based function is then derived from experimental measurements, which reflects the relationship between RFID tag distribution and localization precision. This function shows that localization precision is mainly determined by tag density of RFID tag distribution. Based on the experimental findings, a sparse RFID tag distribution approach is proposed. The results show that in comparison with the conventional RFID tag distribution, passive RFID localization system with sparse RFID tag distribution can deliver a higher localization precision for the required accuracy. View full abstract»

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    An intelligent RFID data predicting method based on BP-adaboost

    Hong Cheng ; Jie Tan ; Yu Liu ; Wancheng Ni
    Information Science and Service Science and Data Mining (ISSDM), 2012 6th International Conference on New Trends in

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 628 - 632

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Combinatorial Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) benchmarking test methodology is proposed to instruct users to deploy RFID real-life systems by giving reliable benchmark data. However, it is very inefficient, since collecting RFID data is usually very time-consuming. With the rapid increase of RFID components, combinatorial RFID benchmarking tests get more and more expensive. To address this problem, an intelligent RFID data predicting method is proposed. The predicting model for each reader antenna in the RFID system is learnt from a small set of real RFID data by the BP-Adaboost algorithm. The model then is used to produce highly accurate RFID reading results at different antenna deployments. The RFID system performance can be estimated from these reading results, which can be used to help users choose the suitable RFID system for certain application. Conducted experiments showed that such predicting model produced RFID data with an accuracy over 92%, and can be used to quickly find out improper RFID components and systems for different applications in a very short time. View full abstract»

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    Light-weight RFID device interface for controlling RFID tag memory access

    Se Won Oh ; Hyochan Bang ; Jae Gak Hwang
    Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 2010 The 12th International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1516 - 1521
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This research is about the interface between a RFID reader device and a host for controlling the RFID tag memory access operations. The traditional RFID reader interfaces are often inflexible to deal with the various forms of integration for the heterogeneous RFID reader devices. Also the industries are demanding a RFID device interface to be easier to handle and to improve the processing speed for the RFID tag access operations. Thus, this research analyzes the existing methods for controlling RFID tag memory access, and then proposes a light-weight RFID device interface, called SRP (Simple Reader Protocol). SRP specifies the message formats, supports access operations, and enables the RFID reader configuration about RFID tag memory access. SRP is expected to help the integrated control for the heterogeneous RFID reader devices and further make RFID system development efficient. View full abstract»

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    Mobile Platform for Networked RFID Applications

    Donggeon Lee ; Seongyun Kim ; Howon Kim ; Namje Park
    Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG), 2010 Seventh International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ITNG.2010.188
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 625 - 630
    Cited by:  Papers (9)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    RFID (radio-frequency identification) technology is widely used for supply chain management and inventory control. Furthermore, RFID has been recognized as a tool to realize a ubiquitous environment. The typical architecture of RFID applications comprises RFID tags, which are embedded in or attached to an object, an RFID reader, and IS (information services) server. The RFID reader reads the code in the RFID tag and interprets it by communicating with the IS server via a proper communication network. This is the typical architecture defined by EPCglobal. The RFID reader can be stationary or mobile. A mobile RFID reader affords more applications than the stationary one. In this paper, we describe the core components for realizing a mobile RFID application, such as a mobile RFID reader, platform architecture, and the corresponding network architecture. Although there are several types of mobile RFID readers in the market, we propose a specially designed mobile RFID technology that has several positive features including security, network architecture, operation scenario, and code resolution mechanism. Furthermore, we analyze the characteristics of the proposed technologies. View full abstract»

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    Recent trends in RFID and a java based software framework for its integration in mobile phones

    Pathak, R. ; Joshi, S.
    Internet, 2009. AH-ICI 2009. First Asian Himalayas International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/AHICI.2009.5340296
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is generic term for technologies employing radio waves for detecting objects. We describe our approach with recent methodologies in RFID systems sighting its commercial ventures as it is the most researched and rapidly emerging technologies. RFID has wide application in payment systems, access control and asset tracking as the companies are using the technology's potential in manufacturing and other areas. A proposed software framework for RFID integrated mobile phones with considerable changes in the system has been explained in the paper. Installation of the operating system with a driver to run RFID reader and involvement of Java Platform ME package for support in programming for RFID reader. A system service will continuously watch over the RFID hardware for events. Standalone application made in Java can use and control the reader. Exemplary future applications and systems based on RFID and other technologies integrated with RFID mobile phones are proposed in this paper. We have discussed about applications, problems being faced by such RFID systems & their limitations in other fields in the current era. The commercial scope in the field of RFID manufacturing and research has been discussed with its integration with current technologies. Some hardware and software limitations that restrict its feasibility in some fields like Mobile Phone based RFID technologies are discussed with some future enhancements in this area. View full abstract»

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    A Batteryless RFID Remote Control System

    Boaventura, A.J.S. ; Carvalho, N.B.
    Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 61 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2013.2262688
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2727 - 2736
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper presents a novel eco-friendly batteryless remote control (RC) system based on a multi-RF identification (RFID) scheme. The proposed RC device does not require the use of batteries or other installed power source. Instead, it relies on passive RFID chips that are remotely powered by an RFID reader. The controlled device (e.g., a TV) incorporates an RFID reader to power up and communicate with the RC. The proposed batteryless RC is composed of an antenna, a plurality of N passive RFID chips and N switches, and a multi-port microstrip network that interconnects the various RFID chips, allowing them to share a common antenna. Each key of the RC is associated to an RFID with a unique identifier, which allows the device to be controlled to identify the key pressed by the user. The proposed arrangement ensures that only the chip associated to the pressed key is read by the RFID reader, while the other chips remain inactive. First of all, the system is described including the multi-RFID scheme and the proposed multi-port network. Afterword, a characterization of the contact switches and RFID chips is performed. This is followed by RFID chip impedance matching and switch tuning. A multi-port network is fabricated (in low-cost FR4) and measured in order to access network's behavior depending on some parameters such as the number of ports and distance from the active port to the antenna. Finally, a four-key RC unit is prototyped, and an RFID reader system is integrated in a TV by using an external RFID-to-infrared interface. Four control functionalities are implemented and tested (CH+, CH-, Vol+, and Vol-). Measurements are also conducted to evaluate the system coverage range and line-of-sight capability. View full abstract»

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    A new indoor position estimation method of RFID tags for continuous moving navigation systems

    Nakamori, E. ; Tsukuda, D. ; Fujimoto, M. ; Oda, Y. ; Wada, T. ; Okada, H. ; Mutsuura, K.
    Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), 2012 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IPIN.2012.6418858
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is considered as one of the most preferable ways for the position estimation in indoor environments, since GPS does not work in such situations. In RFID system, an RFID reader enables to estimate the position of RFID tags easily and inexpensively. In applications with the position estimation of RFID tags, indoor robot navigations are very important for human society. The problem is how to obtain the position estimations of RFID tags as accurately as possible. Previously S-CRR (Swift Communication Range Recognition) has been proposed for the appropriate estimation method of this kind of applications. This method is capable of the accurate position estimation of an RFID tag in very short time. The disadvantage of S-CRR is that the mobile robot must stop to search RFID tags accurately at each position. In indoor robot navigations, mobile entities like robots have to move continuously because they need to navigate smoothly and safely. In this paper, we propose a new position estimation method of RFID tags with continuous moving only using RFID technology. We call this Continuous Moving CRR (CM-CRR). CM-CRR uses two communication ranges, long and short ranges and switches them appropriately. The system estimates the position of RFID tags using their approaches and continuous moving. To show the effectiveness of CM-CRR, we evaluate the estimation error of an RFID tag by computer simulations. From the results, CM-CRR can accurately estimate the position of RFID tags with continuously moving of the mobile robot and be applied to indoor robot navigations. View full abstract»

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    A study for optimizing the reading rate of RFID tagged cartons in palletizing process

    Chiao-Tzu Huang ; Li-Wen Lo ; Wei-Ling Wang ; Hsin-Lin Chen
    Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, 2008. IEEM 2008. IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IEEM.2008.4738048
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1138 - 1142
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the advanced Supply Chain/Logistic system, RFID system adapts the radio waves to scan and record the data received from RFID tags. The RFID readers can be placed up to a few meters away from RFID tagged objects. According to the investigation conducted by EPCglobal, the readers are still unable to achieve 100% reading rates, and it means the Wal-Mart and its suppliers could not reach complete reading rate in the process of commodity transaction. This study adopts the Taguchi Method and selects major controllable factors, for example distance, placement of RFID tag, and direction of RFID antenna, all possible factors are adopted in this study. The results show the reading rate of RFID system is mainly affected by relative positions of RFID tags and RFID antenna. In the final, a standard model will be initiated for RFID system, and this systematic arrangement would insure to optimize the reading rate of palletizing process. View full abstract»

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    Authentication and lightweight cryptography in low cost RFID

    Mobahat, H.
    Software Technology and Engineering (ICSTE), 2010 2nd International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/ICSTE.2010.5608776
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): V2-123 - V2-129
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Technology-driven transactions, or e-commerce, should not involve a tradeoff in which consumers relinquish widening amounts of their privacy in return for greater convenience. Businesses that put customers in control of their online privacy options increase consumer faith in the online world - and promote greater acceptance of e-commerce. Ultimately, though, the issue comes down to consumer empowerment and trust. “Companies rolling out RFID must have a clear and rigidly enforced policy on the deactivation of their tracking mechanisms, as having a cost-effective supply chain will be pretty meaningless if nobody trusts you enough to buy from you,” states Martin Butler. RFID is rapidly pushed to the existing markets with diversified applications, such as automatic tariffs payment in public transport, animal identification and tracking, and automated manufacturing and logistics control. Unprotected communications between tags and readers over a wireless channel can disclose information about the tags and their positions. Due to the potential wide deployment of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), the security of RFID systems has drawn extensive attention from both academia and industry, and the RFID authentication protocol is an important mechanism in the security of RFID systems. The desired security requirements of RFID authentication protocols include privacy, integrity, authentication, anonymity/untraceability, and even availability. To design an efficient protocol that satisfies all the requirements with limited resources is a challenge According to Benoit Calmels et.al - 2006 -Strong cryptography mechanisms need high computing resources which is not possible to be embedded into RFID tags. The approach would be an implementation of some low -cost but secure cryptographic functions in the tag. It would bring a high level of privacy where there is no need for any substantial change in the synopsis of communication between the tag and the reader. On - - the other hand, the tag broadcasts the same data to any reader, with dependency on given authorization, could read and process all or part of the said data. The major challenge faced when trying to provide security for low-cost radio frequency identification (RFID) tags in their very limited resources- for example, tag memory will be restricted to several hundred bits, and approximately 250-4000 logic gates out of the total tag space can be devoted to security- related tasks. So readers should bear in mind that these constrained devices are unable to support on-chip standard cryptographic primitives. During this research with an exploratory purpose some different protocols around authentication and cryptography in low cost RFID would be investigated and compared as the output and result with a qualitative approach. This strategy makes the opportunity to discover similarities and differences among protocols and solutions. So that specialists or executives who are looking for a proper protocol or scheme correspondent to their needs or priorities, could choose one or two among others, in other words when investigating the varied types of attacks against schemes, the administrator or the customer of the technology (technology buyer) could set up a comparison to find the suitable protocol according to his /her criterions or priorities like the value of data that is going to be transmitted by RFID transceivers in the air field or wireless media, or the probable attacks could happen according to situation of located RFID devices. For example, if the administrator or executive knows that the position or location that his/her RFID devices located are vulnerable to DOS attack would not choose RHLK or LCAP as the appropriate protocol, or if he/she assumes that spoofing or replay attack is more probable than other attacks then would not choose Li et al. or SRAC schemes for his/ her RFID transceivers authentication. View full abstract»

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    A Security Framework in RFID Multi-domain System

    Dong Seong Kim ; Taek-Hyun Shin ; Jong Sou Park
    Availability, Reliability and Security, 2007. ARES 2007. The Second International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ARES.2007.24
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1227 - 1234
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In previous approaches, it's generally assumed that all radio frequency identification (RFID) tags belong to a single RFID domain system (we name this as RFID single domain system). To date, most researches in the RFID single domain system have been on authentication protocols against a variety of attacks. This paper considers the security and privacy problems regarding that RFID tags used by different two or more RFID domains (we name this as RFID multi-domain system). We divided the security and privacy mechanisms in RFID multi-domain system into 3 conceptual parts: RFID forehand system security, RFID backend system security, and RFID inter-domain system security. First, we review RFID forehand and backend system security issues. Second, we present a security framework in RFID multi-domain system. Third, we propose and evaluate authentication and authorization for RFID inter-domain system with a case study View full abstract»

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    Characterization of RFID Strap Using Single-Ended Probe

    Sung-Lin Chen ; Ken-Huang Lin
    Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 58 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2009.2018697
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3619 - 3626
    Cited by:  Papers (11)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) strap attachment modality is more reliable, low cost, and easy to assemble, and therefore, it becomes increasingly more popular in RFID tag designs. This paper presents a single-ended probe method with power transmission coefficient compensation for the characterization of RFID straps. Approximate identification of the read/write threshold power and impedance is based on the charge status of voltage multipliers and charge pumps instead of on the read/write-modulated commands. For comparison purposes, the conventional source-pull system is also briefly reviewed and applied to verify the measurement results of absorbing power and impedance of RFID straps using the presented method. An enhanced source-pull system, named RFID source-pull system, for an RFID strap that can accurately measure the threshold power and impedance for read/write-modulated commands is also constructed for verifying the presented method. Alien and Texas Instruments (TI) straps are used for measurement examples in this paper. It is found that the measurement results of both RFID straps obtained by the presented method agree well with those by the conventional source-pull system and the RFID source-pull system. The single-ended probe method can measure the approximate read/write threshold power and impedance of the RFID strap with minimum operating procedures; furthermore, the complicated radio frequency (RF) facilities are not required. Obtaining the read/write threshold power and impedance of RFID straps allows designers to estimate the maximum read range of the designed RFID tag in advance. Therefore, the implemented cost and design cycle times can substantially be reduced. View full abstract»

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    Distributed Design of RFID Network for Large-Scale RFID Deployment

    Yi Zhi Zhao ; Oon Peen Gan
    Industrial Informatics, 2006 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/INDIN.2006.275715
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 44 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    It is no doubt that RFID technology is of very widespread applications. With RFID deployment scales-up, its application becomes more and more network-centric. The design of RFID network hence plays a critical role for successfully deploying large-scale applications. This is especially true when the tagged object is on item-level. This paper discusses issues that should be considered in design of RFID network; analyzes the potential impacts of different RFID network design on the existing enterprise network; presents a distributed design of RFID network for large-scale deployment. The paper also quantifies packet size of RFID data based on EPC serialized number; analyzes bandwidth requirement of RFID traffic for the diversified number of readers to illustrate the necessity of the distributed design, which authors believe are helpful for the earlier adopters of RFID technology, and may ignite more researchers and pioneering practitioners involving R&D along this direction. As a case study, the paper presents a cost-effective, sound and efficient RFID network design for retail. View full abstract»

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    Smart Parking Applications Using RFID Technology

    Pala, Z. ; Inanc, N.
    RFID Eurasia, 2007 1st Annual

    DOI: 10.1109/RFIDEURASIA.2007.4368108
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Cited by:  Papers (21)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    There has been a considerable amount of reduction in transaction costs and decrease in stock shortage with the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in automation. Most of the RFID networks include a wide range of automation technologies. These technologies are RFID readers, RFID writers, RFID barcode scanners, RFID smart sensors and RFID controllers. In this study, a solution has been provided for the problems encountered in parking-lot management systems via RFID technology. RFID readers, RFID labels, computers, barriers and software are used as for the main components of the RFID technology. The software has been handled for the management, controlling, transaction reporting and operation tasks for parking lots located on various parts of the city. Check-ins and check-outs of the parking-lots will be under control with RFID readers, labels and barriers. Personnel costs will be reduced considerably using this technology. It will be possible to see unmanned, secure, automized parking-lots functioning with RFID technology in the future. Check-ins and check-outs will be handled in a fast manner without having to stop the cars so that traffic jam problem will be avoided during these processes. Drivers will not have to stop at the circulation points and parking tickets will be out of usage during check-ins and check-outs. It will be avoided ticket-jamming problems for the ticket processing machines as well. Vehicle owners will not have to make any payments at each check-out thus a faster traffic flow will be possible. Since there won't be any waiting during check-ins and check-outs the formation of emission gas as a result of such waiting will be avoided. An automized income tracking system, a car tracking system for charging and a central parking-car tracking system have been developed and utilized. Instead of cars' parking on streets, a more modern and a fast operating parking-lot system have been developed. View full abstract»

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    Design and Development of Sensing RFID Tags on Flexible Foil Compatible With EPC Gen 2

    Fernandez Salmeron, J. ; Molina-Lopez, F. ; Rivadeneyra, A. ; Vasquez Quintero, A. ; Capitan-Vallvey, L.F. ; de Rooij, N.F. ; Banqueri Ozaez, J. ; Briand, D. ; Palma, A.J.
    Sensors Journal, IEEE

    Volume: 14 , Issue: 12
    DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2335417
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 4361 - 4371

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Taking advantage of the sensor interface capabilities of a radio frequency identification (RFID) chip, the integration of different types of sensors on printed ultrahigh frequency (UHF) RFID tags is investigated. The design, development, and testing of printed smart sensing tags compatible with the RFID standard electronic product code Gen 2 is presented. Two different strategies are employed to interface the sensors: 1) passive single-chip and 2) semipassive architectures. Both strategies provide sensor data by directly answering to the RFID reader inquiries or using a data logging mechanism to store the sensor data in the RFID chip memory. Temperature readout is measured using the embedded sensor in the RFID chip. Additionally, a light sensor and pressure sensor interfaced to a microcontroller are implemented in the passive and semipassive tags versions, respectively. For the employed RFID chip, two different UHF antennas are designed and printed using inkjet and screen printing to compare their radio frequency performances. Finally, the fabricated smart tags are fully validated through measurements in an anechoic chamber and their behaviors are compared with numerical simulation. The screen printed semipassive RFID tag with loop antenna shows a better reading range than the inkjet-printed one, whereas the passive tag can be considered as the most cost-effective system. View full abstract»

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    A systematic scheme for designing RFID systems with high object detection reliability

    Hong Cheng ; Wancheng Ni ; Na Li
    Information Science, Electronics and Electrical Engineering (ISEEE), 2014 International Conference on

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/InfoSEEE.2014.6946175
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1521 - 1526

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a key technology in logistic management, object tracking, object locating, patient supervision, and many other applications. The design and deployment of the RFID system in real application is challenging due to the complexity of the factors involved. In this paper, a novel systematic scheme is proposed to provide practical guidance on the design of RFID systems with high reliability of object detection in real applications. It can be easily utilized by users. Four key parts: RFID system pre-test, RFID system deployment, RFID system reliability maintenance, and RFID error correction are included in this scheme. In each part, practical strategies which improve the object detection reliability of RFID systems are proposed. Existing strategies that enhance the reliability are also listed and discussed. The proposed strategies and existing ones are integrated seamlessly with the RFID system design in the scheme. View full abstract»

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    RFID based mobiles: Next generation applications

    Sharma, M. ; Siddiqui, A.
    Information Management and Engineering (ICIME), 2010 The 2nd IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICIME.2010.5477641
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 523 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The boom of RFID usage -especially in logistics-has taken down the prices of RFID components and therefore opened also possibilities for other business fields to benefit the advantages of RFID. The technology for radio frequency identification (RFID) enables data to be transmitted by a tiny portable device, called a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and processed according to the needs of a particular application. It is only recently that the technology has begun to take off in the mass market. RFID applications in mobile phone business have not yet been deployed in other that small scale, but the discussion around this topic has been really started. Analysts predict that RFID will revolutionize areas of industry, such as supply chain management and the retail business, for example by reducing costs with better stock management. As the components for RFID-systems - tags and readers - have become smaller and cheaper, the technology has begun to take-off, in a variety of different areas This paper focuses on the applications of RFID technology in mobile telecommunication services. Many experts see RFID as an enabler for ubiquitous computing - the integration of computation into the environment: any device, anytime, anywhere. Reservation could be as simple as holding your phone close (less than 20 centimeters) to a poster or advertising billboard. RFID enabled mobile phones could be a first step in this direction. The combination of mobile phones and RFID technologies promises great potential in the market for mobile telecommunication services, which is discussed in this paper. View full abstract»

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    Coordination and Risk Analysis of VMI Supply Chains With RFID Technology

    Tsan-Ming Choi
    Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 7 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TII.2011.2158830
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 497 - 504
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    RFID technology is an important tool in modern supply chain management. This paper analytically studies the use of RFID in a two-echelon single-manufacturer single-retailer supply chain with the vendor managed inventory (VMI) scheme. First, the supply chain models under a retail replenishment problem with and without RFID are constructed. Second, both the levels of risk and the expected profits of the supply chains are explored. Third, measures which can coordinate the supply chains with and without RFID are proposed. Fourth, comparisons between the cases with and without RFID are made. This paper analytically illustrates several important managerial insights which include: (i) when the RFID tag cost is very small, employing the RFID technology yields an improved supply chain with both larger expected profit and smaller risk; (ii) there exist multiple return policies which can coordinate the supply chain with RFID and the respective upper and lower bounds are identified; (iii) it is beneficial for the manufacturer to take the initiative to share the retailer's cost of RFID implementation, and this action not only can help coordinate the supply chain but also lower the manufacturer's risk; and (iv) compared to the case without RFID, the return rate under the coordinating return policy for the case with RFID can be lower if the RFID tag cost is appropriately shared between the retailer and the manufacturer. These insights are important for both industrialists and academicians. View full abstract»

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    A novel paradigm to exchange data in RFID piconets

    Farris, I. ; Iera, A. ; Spinella, S.C.
    RFID (RFID), 2013 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/RFID.2013.6548157
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 215 - 222
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper a new paradigm is proposed, according to which a group of RFID readers establishes a piconet, called RAN (RFID Area Network), similarly to Bluetooth or Zigbee devices and exchanges data by only using RFID tags as a common “virtual channel”. The proposal represents an interesting enabling factor of pure RFID ecosystems, wherein RFID enabled devices (such as mobile RFID readers, RFID reader cards embedded into cellular/mobile devices, etc.) only rely on the RFID technology for identification, for sensing and, now, for low-bitrate data exchange as well. Suitable algorithms to handle interference and collision problems during the data exchange within a piconet are proposed and the performance of the introduced paradigm is assessed. View full abstract»

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    RFID-tate: Efficient security and privacy protection for active RFID over IEEE 802.15.4

    Sadikin, M.F. ; Kyas, M.
    Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications, IISA 2014, The 5th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IISA.2014.6878787
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 335 - 340

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The emerging active RFID technology over low-rate wireless IEEE 802.15.4 has become promising standard for large-scale tracking applications. Nevertheless, using of such technology introduces tremendous problems in security and privacy. By taking in to account, the nature of common RFID communication is not mutually authenticated, the RFID system is susceptible from various threats ranging from impersonation, spoofing or data manipulation, to various techniques of man-in-the-middle attacks including denial-of-service and replay attack. In addition, the nature of RFID tag basically can be read without authorization. Such issue makes the RFID system is highly susceptible to privacy threats (e.g. unauthorized tracking, spying, crucial information leakage, etc.). On the other hand, the constrained nature of RFID system makes the security enforcement is more complicated. Indeed, common security and privacy solution, such as using Transport Layer Security method (TLS/SSL) is not feasible for the RFID tag which associates to limited resources. This paper presents RFID-Tate, an efficient privacy protection and mutual authentication using Tate pairing of Identity-based Encryption method. It is tailored to tackle various security and privacy challenges by applying a light-weight cryptographic method with advanced-level 128 bit security protection. In addition, the RFID-Tate maintains the computation overhead as optimally minimum. Thus it is feasible to be implemented in the constrained nature of RFID system. View full abstract»

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    Theory and Performance Evaluation of Group Coding of RFID Tags

    Sato, Y. ; Mitsugi, J. ; Nakamura, O. ; Murai, J.
    Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 9 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TASE.2012.2193125
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 458 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification technology which identifies physical objects individually according to their unique identifiers (ID) recorded in each RFID tag. Many business processes require the integrity verification of a group of objects in addition to individual object identification. This paper proposes “group coding” of RFID tags with which we can verify the integrity of groups of objects by writing parity check data to the memory of RFID tags. It was revealed by simulations and experiments that we could determine the number of missing RFID tags up to 10 with accuracy over 99% when we write 96 bits of the checksum data to 20 RFID tags. The whole duration of group decoding measured in the experiment was approximately 2 to 3 s. The time to compute group encoding and decoding was in the order of several milliseconds and thus negligible. The RFID inventory accounts for the majority of the duration. Note to Practitioners-Current RFID features fast identification of many physical objects. However, the integrity check of a group of objects is usually done by looking up a packaging list or a shipment list in EDI, which requires a network connection. Our proposed “group coding” of RFID tags can perform the group integrity check without a network connection. In addition, when the integrity of the group is infringed, the group coding can determine the number of RFID tags missing from the group. These features of group coding can reduce the cost of looking up shipment lists and locate missing RFID tags. The accuracy of the determination is controlled by adjusting the size of data written in each RFID tag. Adopters of group coding can select the optimal performance of group coding from the requirements of the accuracy and constraints like memory consumption of RFID tags. View full abstract»

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    Sliding-Typed Communication Range Recognition Method for Indoor Position Estimation in Passive RFID Systems

    Inada, A. ; Oda, Y. ; Nakamori, E. ; Fujimoto, M. ; Wada, T. ; Mutsuura, K. ; Okada, H.
    Parallel Processing Workshops (ICPPW), 2011 40th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICPPW.2011.29
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 42 - 49

    IEEE Conference Publications

    RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems have become meaningful as a new identification source that is applicable in ubiquitous environments. Each RFID tag has a unique ID, and is attached to an object. A user reads the unique ID of an RFID tag with RFID readers and obtains the information of the object. One of the most important technologies that use the RFID system is the position estimation of RFID tags. The position estimation means to estimates the location of the object with the RFID tag. It is very useful to acquire the location information of RFID tag. If a user understands the position of the RFID tag, a new navigation system for persons in complex buildings. In this paper, we propose a new method for accurate indoor position estimation of passive RFID systems named as the Sliding-Typed CRR method. In this method, the position of an RFID tag is estimated by using S-CRR (Swift Communication Range Recognition) method. The proposed method is capable of accurate position estimation in any directions of RFID tags. View full abstract»

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    A Multi-Sensing-Range Method for Position Estimation of Passive RFID Tags

    Hori, T. ; Wda, T. ; Ota, Y. ; Uchitomi, N. ; Mutsuura, K. ; Okada, H.
    Networking and Communications, 2008. WIMOB '08. IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing,

    DOI: 10.1109/WiMob.2008.39
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 208 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Recently, the RFID tag system is paid attention to as an identification source. Each RFID tag is attached to some object. With the unique ID of RFID tag, a user identifies the object provided with the RFID tag, and derives appropriate information about the object. One of the important applications of RFID technology is the position estimation of RFID tags. It can be very useful to acquire the location information concerning the RFID tags. It can be applied to navigation systems and positional detection systems for robots etc. In this paper, we propose a new position estimation method of RFID tags by using a probabilistic approach. In this method, mobile objects (person and robot, etc) with RFID readers estimate the positions of RFID tags with plural communication ranges. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method by computer simulations. View full abstract»

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    Impact of RFID technology on economic order quantity models

    Bhadrachalam, L. ; Chalasani, S. ; Boppana, R.V.
    Systems Conference, 2009 3rd Annual IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/SYSTEMS.2009.4815821
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 327 - 332
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    RFID has been adopted by many organizations in recent years. The existing inventory models - commonly used for reordering the products by the retailer - have been well studied for non-RFID implementations. In this paper, we modify these models to consider RFID implementations. The problem we address in this paper is how RFID implementations can affect the production models. RFID implementations incur additional costs, which is a disadvantage for organizations involved in the supply chain. However, the advantage of RFID is that it can make the supply chain continuously visible thus reducing the production lead times to zero or almost negligible. The key question we address is, if RFID technology is implemented, should the organization move to a different production model to reap the benefits of RFID implementations? This paper discusses the conditions under which an RFID implementation is beneficial compared to a non-RFID implementation for existing inventory models. We argue that, in most cases, changes to an organization's inventory model is required for an RFID implementation to be beneficial. We present detailed mathematical expressions and illustrate them with examples to support our claims. View full abstract»

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    On Generating RFID Privacy Policies in Consideration of Openness and Enforcement

    Shi-Cho Cha ; Ren-Ting Ku ; Ya-Ping Fu ; Hao-Ping Lin
    Social Computing (SocialCom), 2010 IEEE Second International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/SocialCom.2010.133
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 897 - 905

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Several consumer protection groups and authorities in different countries have recently proposed guidelines for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) privacy. Guidelines typically request that RFID application providers publish their privacy policies. Although several guidelines outline the primary components of privacy policies, few guideline have addressed how RFID application providers can establish privacy policies. This work proposes a scheme, which is going to be adopted by the RFID Applications for Campus Security and Safety Enhancement Project in Taiwan, to help RFID application providers establish RFID privacy policies in consideration of openness and enforcement. By using the proposed scheme, RFID application providers can clarify privacy practices for their applications in RFID privacy policies and communicate these policies to application users. Moreover, application providers can provide evidence to third parties trusted by both application providers and users to ensure that policies are enforced. While an increasing number of countries have started requesting that RFID application providers publish their privacy policies, this work will help countries develop guidelines and regulations for RFID application providers establishing application-based privacy policies. View full abstract»

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    The Green Potential of RFID Projects: A Case-Based Analysis

    Bose, I. ; Shipeng Yan
    IT Professional

    Volume: 13 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MITP.2011.15
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 41 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    RFID has been a popular technology in the areas of supply-chain management, asset tracking, and manufacturing. In general, research related to RFID's potential contributions fall under technological, applications-related, or policy and security issues. However, there's little discussion in the extant literature on the environmentally responsible management of RFID. Traditionally, information and communications technologies (ICT) have been viewed as having a negative impact on the environment, and RFID, as part of ICT, has earned a similar reputation. RFID is also one of the main technologies of pervasive computing, which consumes enough energy to negatively impact the environment. Furthermore, some experience has suggested that we need to take precautionary measures to prevent the likely negative results from the final disposal of RFID labels. Currently, RFID tags are neither biodegradable nor recyclable. Nonetheless, RFID could indeed be a part of green IT, not only by adding economic value to organizations but also by improving environmentally responsible practices related to IT-for example, by accurately tracking a perishable item and preventing its spoilage, RFID can save energy in operations ranging from growing and harvesting to packaging and refrigeration. To explore RFID's potential in green IT, we reviewed 13 case studies, evaluating RFID's contribution to green objectives. View full abstract»

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