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    Comment on "A new approach for lossless floating inductor simulation

    Rathore, T.
    Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 29 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TCS.1982.1085074
    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 62

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    It is pointed out that the approach adopted for simulating a lossless floating inductor by Patranabis et al. in the above footnote[1]{paper} is not new. In fact, their configuration, proposed in an arbitrary manner, has already been systematically derived [3]. An alternative systematic approach is proposed here. (1)D. Patranabis, M. P. Tripathi, and S. B. Roy, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol. CAS-26, pp. 892-893, Oct. 1979. View full abstract»

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    Large population games in radial loss networks: Computationally tractable equilibria for distributed network admission control

    Zhongjing Ma ; Caines, P.E. ; Malhame, R.P.
    Game Theory for Networks, 2009. GameNets '09. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/GAMENETS.2009.5137428
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 418 - 427

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The computational intractability of the dynamic programming (DP) equations associated with optimal admission and routing in stochastic loss networks of any non-trivial size (Ma et al, 2006, 2008) leads one to consider suboptimal distributed game theoretic formulations of the problem. The special class of radial networks with a central core of infinite capacity is considered, and it is shown (under adequate assumptions) that an associated distributed admission control problem becomes tractable asymptotically, as the size of radial network grows to infinity. This is achieved by following a methodology first explored by M. Huang et. al. (2003, 2006-2008) in the context of large scale dynamic games for sets of weakly coupled linear stochastic control systems. At the established Nash equilibrium, each agent reacts optimally with respect to the average trajectory of the mass of all other agents; this trajectory is approximated by a deterministic infinite population limit (associated with the mean field or ensemble statistics of the random agents) which is the solution of a particular fixed point problem. This framework has connections with the mean field models studied by Lasry and Lions (2006, 2007) and close connections with the notion of oblivious equilibrium proposed by Weintraub, Benkard, and Van Roy (2005, 2008) via a mean field approximation. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Columbia appoints committee on engineering training and research


    A.I.E.E., Journal of the

    Volume: 46 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/JAIEE.1927.6534222
    Publication Year: 1927 , Page(s): 298

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    A Wigner-distribution matrix for a stochastic medium

    Bremmer, H.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1979

    Volume: 17
    DOI: 10.1109/APS.1979.1148228
    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 14

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    Signal reconstruction from noisy partial information of its transform

    Dembo, A.
    Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 37 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/29.17501
    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 65 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The usual assumption that the available partial information is noiseless is replaced by a more realistic statistical model which compensates for the presence of noise. The signal reconstruction is thus viewed as a parameter estimation problem, for which the EM iterative algorithm of A.P. Dempster, N.M. Laird, and D.B. Rubin (J. Roy. Stat. Soc., B, vol.39, p.1-37, 1977) is especially suitable. The posterior probability of the signal increases from iteration to iteration, till the signal converges to a stationary point of the posterior distribution. Each iteration involves one transformation followed by an inverse transformation (usually discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) and inverse DFT). Algorithms for reconstruction of both one- and two-dimensional signals from their spectral magnitude, spectral phase, or modified short time Fourier transform are typical examples of the proposed scheme View full abstract»

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    Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles
    A review on key issues of microgrid

    Govardhan, M.D. ; Roy, R.
    Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - India (ISGT India), 2011 IEEE PES

    DOI: 10.1109/ISET-India.2011.6145399
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 322 - 327
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles

    "A Review on Key Issues of Microgrid"
    by M. D. Govardhan and Ranjit Roy
    in the Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - India
    (ISGT India) , Dec. 2011, pp.322-327

    After careful and considered review of the content and authorship of this paper by a duly
    constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's
    Publication Principles.

    This paper contains significant portions of original text from the paper cited below. The
    original text was copied without attribution (including appropriate references to the
    original author(s) and/or paper title) and without permission.

    "Distributed Generation Interface to the CERTS Microgrid"
    by Hassan Nikkhajoei and Roert H. Lasseter,
    in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 24, No. 3, July 2009, pp.1598-1608

    Due to ever increasing energy demand and expectation, the renewable distributed generation (DG) sources such as fuel cells, wind and solar has received a great attention. Microgrid can be viewed as a cluster of loads and parallel DG units installed at consumer's sites. Microgrid has remained as promising research area for many researchers due to many reasons. This paper presents a critical survey on some of the key issues of microgrid operating in grid connected and islanding mode of operation. View full abstract»

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    Conjugate ESPRIT (C-SPRIT)

    Tayem, N. ; Kwon, H.M.
    Military Communications Conference, 2003. MILCOM '03. 2003 IEEE

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MILCOM.2003.1290358
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1155 - 1160 Vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents an algorithm to estimate the direction of the arrival angles (DOA)from noncoherent signals. The proposed algorithm can provide a more precise DOA estimation and can detect more signals than well known MUSIC (R.O. Schmidt, 1986) and ESPRIT (R. Roy, et al., 1989). The complexity is the same as that of ESPRIT since the proposed algorithm uses the same array geometry and subarray processing as ESPRIT does. The main differences between the proposed and ESPRIT algorithms are as follows: (1) the number of the overlapping array elements between two subarrays is equal to M in the proposed algorithm while the maximum number of overlapping elements in ESPRIT is M-l, where M denotes the total number of array elements, and (2) the proposed algorithm employs the conjugate of rotation matrix (CRM) Φ* while ESPRIT uses Φ for the second subarray geometry. Hence, we name the proposed algorithm C-SPRIT. Through analysis, we will justify how we can apply the same ESPRIT processing for our C-SPRIT, and, through simulation results, we will show that our C-SPRIT can perform with a higher resolution than MUSIC (R.O. Schmidt, 1986) and ESPRIT (R. Roy, et al., 1989) for a single dimensional DOA estimation, when the number of sources K is equal to or less than M. View full abstract»

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    Distributed control for radial loss network systems via the ash Certainty Equivalence (mean field) principle

    Zhongjing Ma ; Malhame, R.P. ; Caines, P.E.
    Decision and Control, 2008. CDC 2008. 47th IEEE Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2008.4739237
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 3829 - 3834
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The computational intractability of the dynamic programming (DP) equations associated with optimal admission and routing in stochastic loss networks of any non-trivial size (Ma et al., 2006, 2008) leads to the consideration of suboptimal distributed game theoretic formulations of the problem. This work presents a formulation of loss network admission control problems in terms of a class of systems composed of a large population of weakly coupled competitive individual agent networks. The resulting distributed dynamic stochastic game problem is solved and analyzed by application of the so-called point process Nash certainty equivalence (PPNCE) principle; this is an extension to the network point process context of the NCE principle originally formulated in the LQG framework by M. Huang et al., (2006, 2007). This methodology has close connections with the mean field models studied by Lasry and Lions (2006, 2007) and the notion of oblivious equilibrium proposed by Weintraub, Benkard, and Van Roy (2005, 2007) via a mean field approximation. View full abstract»

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    A synthesis scheme for simultaneous scheduling, binding, partitioning and placement with resources operating at multiple voltages

    Ling Wang ; Yingtao Jiang ; Yu Zhang ; Ru Chen
    Circuits and Systems, 2005. ISCAS 2005. IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2005.1464681
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 688 - 691 Vol. 1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    One promising technique to reduce power consumption is to power a chip with multiple supply voltages. However, as noticed by M.C. Johnson and K. Roy (see ACM Trans. Design Auto. Electronic Syst., vol.2, p.227-48, 1997), multiple voltage designs can cause a number of serious layout problems. We have shown that the layout problems can be partially solved by the addition of a partitioning step into the synthesis flow. A more subtle solution to solve the layout problems requires placement also to be included in the design flow. We present a synthesis scheme, following a simulated annealing engine, to minimize power consumption and area with resources operating at multiple voltages under timing constraints. The scheme simultaneously considers many correlated factors, such as scheduling, binding, partitioning and placement, to reduce power consumption due to both functional units and interconnections between and among them. Experiments with a number of DSP benchmarks show that the proposed algorithm can achieve significant reduction in power and area. View full abstract»

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    PowerDrive: a fast, canonical POWER estimator for DRIVing synthEsis

    Roy, S. ; Arts, H. ; Banerjee, P.
    Computer-Aided Design, 1998. ICCAD 98. Digest of Technical Papers. 1998 IEEE/ACM International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCAD.1998.144330
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 601 - 606

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The computational complexity of a probability based combinational power metric lies in the creation of a BDD for each node in the circuit. We formalize the problem of finding an intermediate support set which controls the size of BDD. We propose an exact algorithm to solve it. We also propose an heuristic solution, PowerDrive, for estimating the power of large circuits. Apart from being more accurate and several times faster than methods by H. Choi and S.H. Hwang (1997) and B. Kapoor (1994), PowerDrive possesses the unique quality of being canonical and of constant complexity, a very desirable quality for a power metric guiding a synthesis tool. Finally, the proposed power metric was able to guide the synthesis tool (S. Roy et al., 1998) to optimize large circuits which could not be synthesized by POSE (S. Imam and M. Pedram, 1995), thus proving the effectiveness of our power metric. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Obituary [Roy Martin Smith]


    Electrical Engineering

    Volume: 71 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/EE.1952.6437913
    Publication Year: 1952 , Page(s): 100

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Narrative paradox and the design of alternate reality games (ARGs) and blogs

    Gouveia, P.
    Games Innovations Conference, 2009. ICE-GIC 2009. International IEEE Consumer Electronics Society's

    DOI: 10.1109/ICEGIC.2009.5293585
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 231 - 238

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This article explores the narrative paradox and how we can design interactive fictions where actions and narrations can contribute for a more meaningful experience within an interactive setting. In this paper we argue that pervasive and alternate reality games (ARGs) and blogs, where participants can cooperate and compete in the real application of tactics and strategies as they play the game online and offline, can contribute to create a more engaging environment where players are able to build their own stories. Player made content and hyperfiction are useful tools to better understand alternate reality games and blogs. The analysis of playable fiction can contribute to recombine action and narration in digital ecologies and we may consider that implosive stories, in which everything happens simultaneously, present in digital spaces allow us to better understand the problem of interactive environments that use mixed technologies. We consider that ARGs are inclusive spaces where gamers can learn how to deal with different media, different communities and different genders. In this mix media spaces gamers can play with action and narrative in order to design their own fictions and stories in real time. In this article we consider some ARGs, I'm Trying to Believe, I Love Bees, Uncle Roy All Around You, among others, in order to argue that this persistent games can be useful to better understand the narrative paradox. View full abstract»

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    An all-pass topology to design a 0–360° continuous phase shifter with low insertion loss and constant differential phase shift

    Khoder, K. ; Le Roy, M. ; Perennec, A.
    European Microwave Conference (EuMC), 2014 44th

    DOI: 10.1109/EuMC.2014.6986747
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1556 - 1559

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, an analog phase shifter is designed by using a novel all-pass topology. The phase shift can be continuously adjusted from 0 up to 380° by biasing varactor-diodes while maintaining the differential phase shift constant across the 6.7 GHz - 7.7 GHz band. This two-stage circuit is simple and compact with respectively insertion losses of 2.9 dB ± 1.3 dB, return losses better than 9.4 dB and a differential phase shift flatness of ± 11° in the worst case. With a 90.5°/dB Figure-of-Merit, this topology presents an interesting trade-off between low-cost, low loss, large phase-shift range, phase flatness and bandwidth. Measurements are discussed and carefully compared to current competing topologies. View full abstract»

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    Programmable current source dedicated to implantable microstimulators

    Voghell, J.-C. ; Sawan, M. ; Roy, M. ; Bourret, S.
    Microelectronics, 1998. ICM '98. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICM.1998.825569
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 67 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, a survey of programmable current-source architectures based on miniaturized digital-to-analog converters (DAC) is elaborated to propose a new design dedicated to a visual microstimulator. The needed current-source constitutes the electronic interface to tissues. A few samples of this current-source will be integrated in an implantable device which is powered and controlled using an electromagnetic coupling technique. The main objective is to select a design that meets as close as possible criteria related to the implant such as reliability, flexibility, energy efficiency and integration area. Consequently, an adequate current source is proposed which is a 5-bit thermometer-code-based DAC architecture. The resulting circuit is simulated using a 0.35 μm CMOS technology from PMC-Sierra available through the Canadian Microelectronics Corporation (CMC) View full abstract»

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    A novel high selectivity bandpass filter for wireless monitoring of sleep apnoea patients

    Yang Yang ; Roy, S.M. ; Xi Zhu ; Karmakar, N.C.
    Microwave Conference Proceedings (APMC), 2011 Asia-Pacific

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1590 - 1593

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, a novel high selectivity compact dual planar microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) with compact ring resonator and two uniquely designed defected ground structures (DGSs) is proposed. By employing the inter-digital and spiral DGSs, the filter selectivity can be significantly enhanced with a wide suppression of higher order harmonics. The filter has a selectivity of 220 dB/GHz, passband insertion loss (IL) of 1.55 dB and bandwidth of 61 MHz at 2.53 GHz. Moreover, the proposed compact ring resonator saves 70.5% area compared to a conventional ring resonator. The significance of this BPF to be applied in wireless telemetry monitoring systems has been introduced in this paper. View full abstract»

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    The design, processing, evaluation and characterization of pyroelectric PVDF copolymer/silicon MOSFET detector arrays

    Bloomfield, P.E. ; Castro, Francisco ; Goeller, R.M.
    Applications of Ferroelectrics, 1994.ISAF '94., Proceedings of the Ninth IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ISAF.1994.522471
    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 725 - 728
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    We have developed a 64 element linear array of pyroelectric elements fully integrated on silicon wafers with MOS readout devices. The ferroelectric polymer film sensor deposited and polarized on the extended gate of the MOSFET results in a hybrid circuit, the pyroelectric-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (POSFET). The fabrication of the wafers included the design of the various masks required to produce the layers which made up the transistor array: stopper layer, active layer, poly-silicon layer, contacts layer, and bottom electrode layer. A thin film of the ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF/TrFE) was spin coated onto the wafer. Patterned gold electrodes were sputtered as the top electrode layer. The ferroelectric copolymer was hysteresis poled in situ. Tests performed included the array's response to a CO2 laser operating in the CW and single pulse modes at 10.6 μm. We present details of the design, processing, and testing of the fabricated devices View full abstract»

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    Study of Optical Frequency Multiplication for Radio-Over-Fiber Systems

    Das, N.K. ; Karmakar, N.C. ; Roy, S.M.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2006, IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/APS.2006.1711362
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3465 - 3468

    IEEE Conference Publications

    We have studied and analyzed the optical frequency multiplication or optical harmonic up-conversion of low-frequency microwave signals while optically up-converting their frequencies. We have simulated the relative intensity of the harmonic components of the generated microwave signal for a triangular wavelength sweep. It has observed in the simulation results that with the increase of harmonic components, the relative intensity decreases for the low values of plate reflectivity View full abstract»

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    A semi-supervised change detection for remotely sensed images using ensemble classifier

    Roy, M. ; Ghosh, S. ; Ghosh, A.
    Intelligent Human Computer Interaction (IHCI), 2012 4th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IHCI.2012.6481866
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the present work, a change detection technique in remotely sensed images (under the scarcity of labeled patterns) is proposed where an ensemble of semi-supervised classifiers is used, instead of using a single (weak) classifier. Iterative learning of multiple classifier system is carried out using the selected unlabeled patterns along with a few labeled patterns. Selection of unlabeled patterns for the next training step is done using ensemble agreement. Finally, the unlabeled patterns are assigned to a class by fusing the outcome of base classifiers using a combiner. For the present investigation, multilayer perceptron (MLP), elliptical basis function neural network (EBFNN) and fuzzy k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques are used as base classifiers. Experiments are carried out on multi-temporal and multi-spectral images and the results for the proposed methodology are found to be encouraging. View full abstract»

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    Nest: a nested-predicate scheme for fault tolerance

    Laranjeira, L.A. ; Malek, M. ; Jenevein, R.
    Computers, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 42 , Issue: 11
    DOI: 10.1109/12.247836
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 1303 - 1324
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Introduces a nested-predicate scheme for fault tolerance, called Nest. Nest provides a formal comprehensive model for fault-tolerant parallel algorithms and a general methodology for designing reliable applications for multiprocessor systems. The model relies on the formalization of concepts for fault tolerance by means of three nested system predicates and on properties ruling their interrelationships. This rigorous framework facilitates the study of the specific properties that enable an algorithm to tolerate faults. The consequence of that is the outline of systematic design techniques that can be used to add fault tolerance properties to algorithms while preserving their functional characteristics View full abstract»

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    A 110μW single-bit continuous-time ΔΣ converter with 92.5dB dynamic range

    Balagopal, S. ; Roy, R.M. ; Saxena, V.
    Circuits and Systems Workshop (DCAS), 2010 IEEE Dallas

    DOI: 10.1109/DCAS.2010.5955028
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A third-order single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator for generic biomedical applications is implemented in a 0.15-μm FD-SOI CMOS process. The overall power efficiency is attained by employing a single-bit quantizer and thus avoiding the mismatch shaping logic. The loop filter coefficients are determined using a systematic design centering approach by accounting for the integrator non-idealities. The single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator consumes 110μW power from a 1.5-V power supply when clocked at 6.144MHz. The simulation results for the modulator exhibit a dynamic range of 94.4 dB and peak SNDR of 92.4 dB for 6 kHz signal bandwidth. The figure of merit (FoM) of this third-order, single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator is 0.271pJ/level. View full abstract»

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    Comparative Study of HEMTs for LNAs in Square Kilometer Array telescope

    Bhaumik, S. ; Roy, M. ; George, D.
    Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), 2011 IEEE MTT-S International

    DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2011.5973252
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given, as follows. A comparative study of transistors of nine prominent low noise HEMT processes is presented. The transistors include a combination of pHEMTs and mHEMTs based on GaAs and InP substrates with gate lengths ranging from 150nm to 70nm. The Square Kilometre Array telescope will require more than 30 million low noise amplifiers (LNA). Here a detailed comparative study of noise and gain indices of HEMTs of nine processes is presented with respect to power consumption and ambient temperature variation. View full abstract»

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    Safety Trigger Conditions for Critical Autonomous Systems

    Mekki-Mokhtar, A. ; Blanquart, J. ; Guiochet, J. ; Powell, D. ; Roy, M.
    Dependable Computing (PRDC), 2012 IEEE 18th Pacific Rim International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/PRDC.2012.22
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 61 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A systematic process for eliciting safety trigger conditions is presented. Starting from a risk analysis of the monitored system, critical transitions to catastrophic system states are identified and handled in order to specify safety margins on them. The conditions for existence of such safety margins are given and an alternative solution is proposed if no safety margin can be defined. The proposed process is illustrated on a robotic rollator. View full abstract»

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    A distributed access generic optical network interface for SMDS networks

    Shahrier, S.M. ; Jenevein, R.M.
    Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference, 1997. IPCCC 1997., IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/PCCC.1997.581555
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 493 - 501

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a BISDN user-to-network interface (UNI) for SMDS networks. The UNI allows clusters of nodes to be connected to an SMDS switching network via fiber-optic lines. The capacity of the line is shared by all the nodes in the cluster, thus making more efficient use of its bandwidth. Within each cluster, transmissions are scheduled on first-come-first-served (FCFS) order of message arrivals, by considering a globally distributed queue. A novel scheme is proposed for controlling access to the fiber-optic transmission network by using two separate subnetworks called the reservation channel and the reservation ring. Slot reservations are made independently from the message transmissions. VHDL was used to construct an RTL model of the UNI. Accurate timing simulations were performed on a cluster of three nodes, and the model was validated using concurrent video and data traffic. Clusters of different sizes were modelled and simulated. Using integrated VBR video and Ethernet traffic traces from Bellcore, a number of quality-of-service (QOS) parameters were measured and are presented View full abstract»

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    Height gain in forest medium: An empirical analysis

    Tewari, R. ; Roy, M. ; Swarup, S.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1982

    Volume: 20
    DOI: 10.1109/APS.1982.1148885
    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 332 - 335

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Radio path loss measurements were conducted in various tropical rain forests of India at frequencies from 50 to 800 MHz, antenna heights from 1.5m to 16.5 m above ground with both horizontaly as well as vertically polarised emissions, and at a large variety of path ranges. The results from a series of height gain measurements in the forest vegetation are presented. Based on the data thus collected, a mathematical model is also suggested to quantitatively assess the height gain as a function of different system parameters. View full abstract»

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    A simple protocol offering both atomic consistent read operations and sequentially consistent read operations

    Raynal, M. ; Roy, M. ; Tutu, C.
    Advanced Information Networking and Applications, 2005. AINA 2005. 19th International Conference on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/AINA.2005.64
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 961 - 966 vol.1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A concurrent object is an object that can be concurrently accessed by several processes. Two well-known consistency criteria for such objects are atomic consistency (also called linearizability) and sequential consistency. Both criteria require that all the operations on the concurrent objects can be totally ordered in such a way that each read operation obtains the last value written into the corresponding object. They differ in the meaning of the word "last" that refers to physical time for atomic consistency, and to logical time for sequential consistency. This paper investigates the merging of these consistency criteria in a multiprocess program. The proposed combination offers two read operations to the processes, namely, an atomic read operation and a sequentially consistent read operation. While the first provides a process with the last "physical" value of an object, the second provides it with a value that is approximate with respect to real-time but whose semantics is perfectly well defined. A protocol that implements the combination on top of an asynchronous distributed system is described. The protocol provides a better understanding of the similarities and differences between these consistency criteria. Moreover, the protocol is generic in the sense that it can be tailored to provide only one of these consistency criteria. View full abstract»

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