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    Twenty-Five Years Progress in the Design of Traction Motors

    Baldwin, M.J.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: 68 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1949.5059916
    Publication Year: 1949 , Page(s): 132 - 137

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Twenty-five years of progress in vacuum arc research and utilization

    Boxman, R.L. ; Goldsmith, S. ; Greenwood, A.
    Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 25 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/27.650894
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1174 - 1186
    Cited by:  Papers (44)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Progress in understanding and applying vacuum arcs is reviewed. Laser diagnostics have demonstrated the existence of micron-sized regions in the cathode spot plasma having electron densities exceeding 1026 m-3. The expanding plasma produces a highly ionized jet whose ions typically have charge states of 1-3 and energies of 50-150 eV. Gas dynamic and explosive emission models have been formulated to explain cathode spot operation. In cases where the arc is constricted at the anode, forming an anode spot, or the anode is thermally isolated, forming a hot anode vacuum arc, material emitted from the anode may dominate the interelectrode plasma. Evaporation from liquid droplets may also provide a substantial component of the plasma, and the presence of these droplets can have deleterious consequences in applications. The vacuum arc has been extensively utilized as a plasma source, particularly for the deposition of protective coatings and thin films, and as a switching medium in electrical distribution circuit breakers View full abstract»

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    Southern Centre: Chairman's address. Twenty-five years of electrical progress in a modern ship-building and ship-repairing establishment

    Harrop, T.G.C.
    Proceedings of the IEE - Part A: Power Engineering

    Volume: 109 , Issue: 43
    DOI: 10.1049/pi-a.1962.0058
    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 22 - 23

    IET Journals & Magazines

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    Twenty-five years of progress in aircraft electrical systems

    Duyan, Peter
    Electrical Engineering

    Volume: 78 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/EE.1959.6432564
    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 527 - 533

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    TWENTY-FIVE years of aviation history accounts for approximately half the time since the Wright Brothers made their famous flight at Kitty Hawk. In the time period since the Golden Anniversary of the AIEE, 1934, great advancements and major breakthroughs have been made in the field of aviation. View full abstract»

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    Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability of IBM Computer Systems: A Quarter Century of Progress

    Hsiao, M.Y. ; Carter, W.C. ; Thomas, J.W. ; Stringfellow, W.R.
    IBM Journal of Research and Development

    Volume: 25 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1147/rd.255.0453
    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 453 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (7)

    IBM Journals & Magazines

    Computer systems have achieved significant progress in the areas of technology, performance, capability, and RAS (reliability/availability/serviceability) during the last quarter century. In this paper, we shall review the advances of IBM computer systems in the RAS area. This progress has for the most part been evolutionary; however, in some cases it has been revolutionary. RAS developments have been driven primarily by technological advances and by increases in functional capability and complexity, but RAS considerations have also played a leading role and have improved technological and functional capability. The paper briefly reviews the progress of computer technology. It points out how IBM has maintained or improved its systems RAS capabilities in the face of the greatly increased number of components and system complexity by improved system recovery and serviceability capability, as well as by basic improvements in intrinsic component failure rate. The paper also covers the CPU, tape, and disk areas and shows how RAS improvements in these areas have been significant. The main objective is to provide a comprehensive view of significant developments in the RAS characteristics of IBM computer systems over the past twenty-five years. View full abstract»

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    Preface


    IBM Journal of Research and Development

    Volume: 25 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1147/rd.255.0583
    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 583 - 584

    IBM Journals & Magazines

    The past twenty-five years have been marked by unprecedented progress in electronic component development, progress which has provided increases of many orders of magnitude in measures of component performance. This has led to remarkable improvements in the performance, cost, and reliability of computer systems. Much of this progress had been provided by the advances in semiconductor technology and the emergence of the integrated circuit. In addition, the increasing capabilities of components have made possible new approaches and more complex functions in systems architecture and machine design, a symbiotic interaction which continues apace. The simultaneous development of the digital computer and semiconductor component technology has generated the explosive growth of both. View full abstract»

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    American telegraph engineering — Notes on history and practice

    Maver, William ; Mcnicol, Donald
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the

    Volume: 29 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1109/PAIEE.1910.6659897
    Publication Year: 1910 , Page(s): 1263 - 1298

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Although there may not be any startling technical announcements to make relative to recent progress in American telegraph engineering practice, yet within the twenty-five years past, in common with the progress in other lines of engineering, substantial developments have been also made in the telegraphic art along numerous lines, such as the standardization of equipment, and the adoption of improved apparatus and methods of operation which have generally resulted in increased efficiency of the plant, greater reliability of operation, a more rapid handling of the traffic, and consequent improvement in the service rendered the public; and which developments have, in fact, been adequate to meet the demands made upon the telegraph. View full abstract»

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    Document Recognition without Strong Models

    Baird, H.S.
    Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICDAR.2011.91
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 414 - 423

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Can a high-performance document image recognition system be built without detailed knowledge of the application? Having benefited from the statistical machine learning revolution of the last twenty years, our architectures rely less on hand-crafted special-case rules and more on models trained on labeled-sample data sets. But urgent questions remain. When we can't collect (and label) enough real training data, does it help to complement them with data synthesized using generative models? Is it ever completely safe to rely on synthetic data? If we can't manage to train (or craft) a single complete, near-perfect, application-specific "strong" model to drive recognition, can we make progress by combining several imperfect or incomplete "weak" models? Can recognition that is carried out jointly over weak models perform optimally while still running fast? Can a recognizer automatically pick a strong model of its input? Must we always pre-train models for every kind ("style") of input expected, or can a recognizer adapt to unknown styles? Can weak models adapt autonomously, growing stronger and so driving accuracy higher, without any human intervention? Can one model "criticize" - and then proceed to correct - other models, even while it is being criticized and corrected in turn by them? After twenty-five years of research on these questions we have partial answers, many in the affirmative: in addition to promising laboratory demonstrations, we can take pride in successful applications. I'll illustrate the evolution of the state of the art with concrete examples, and point out open problems. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    The evolution of end user programming

    Cypher, A.
    Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, 2009. VL/HCC 2009. IEEE Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/VLHCC.2009.5295315
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    American Telegraph Engineering-Notes on History and Practice

    Maver, William ; McNicol, Donald
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: XXIX , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1910.4764676
    Publication Year: 1910 , Page(s): 1303 - 1338

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Within the twenty-five years past, in common with the progress in other lines of engineering, substantial developments have been also made in the telegraphic art along numerous lines, such as the standardization of equipment, and the adoption of improved apparatus and methods of operation which have generally resulted in increased efficiency of the plant, greater reliability of operation, a more rapid handling of the traffic, and consequent improvement in the service rendered the public; and which developments have, in fact, been adequate to meet the demands made upon the telegraph. The time has been deemed opportune to record some of the salient features of present telegraph engineering practice in this country, but first in order more clearly to illustrate the differences between past and modern practice a resum6 of the early history of telegraph practice in this country will be essayed in which resume certain more or less interesting items of information relating to that history perhaps not hitherto published, or in any event not readily available, may be recounted. View full abstract»

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    Aerospace nickel-cadmium cell verification-an update

    Manzo, M.A. ; Hall, S.W.
    Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 1997. IECEC-97., Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/IECEC.1997.659167
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 99 - 107 vol.1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Over the past twenty-five years NASA has successfully flown “NASA-Standard” nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) Cells manufactured by GE/Gates/SAFT on a variety of spacecraft. In 1992, a NASA Battery Review Board determined that the strategy of a NASA Standard Cell and Battery Specification and the accompanying NASA control of a standard manufacturing control document (MCD) for Ni-Cd cells and batteries was unwarranted. As a result of that determination, standards were abandoned and the use of cells other than the NASA standard became more accepted. In order to gain insight into the performance and characteristics of the various aerospace Ni-Cd products available, tasks were initiated within the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program that involve the procurement and testing of representative aerospace Ni-Cd cell designs. A standard set of test conditions has been established in order to provide similar information about the products from various vendors. The objective of this testing is to provide independent verification of representative commercial flight cells available in the marketplace today. This paper provides an update on the progress of verification tests being run on cells from various manufacturers. Data from this program will establish the performance characteristics of the cells produced by the various vendors. It will also provide baseline information for comparison with future cell lots. The design parameters for the cells being evaluated as part of this program, details of the verification test plan, and the test results available to date are discussed View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    A brief message on the twenty-fifth anniversary of NAFIPS

    Filev, D.P. ; Barone, J.M. ; Reformat, M.
    Fuzzy Information Processing Society, 2009. NAFIPS 2009. Annual Meeting of the North American

    DOI: 10.1109/NAFIPS.2009.5156376
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 2

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    A new n-type and improved p-type pseudo-ternary (Bi2Te3)(Sb2Te3)(Sb2Se3) alloy for Peltier cooling

    Ettenberg, M.H. ; Jesser, W.A. ; Rosi, F.D.
    Thermoelectrics, 1996., Fifteenth International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICT.1996.553255
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 52 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The pseudo-ternary alloy of (Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 3/)(Sb/sub 2/Te/sub 3/)(Sb/sub 2/Se/sub 3/) has been explored for over twenty-five years with little progress in the figure of merit, p-type 3.4/spl times/10/sup -3//K and n-type 3.2/spl times/10/sup -3//K. Using multiple dopants, Te and SbI/sub 3/, higher figure of merit material can be achieved without creating more of the deleterious pure Te commonly found as a second phase in the p-type alloy, (Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 3/)/sub 25/(Sb/sub 2/Te/sub 3/)/sub 72/(Sb/sub 2/Se/sub 3/)/sub 3/. Using a combination of the two dopants figures of merit as high as 3.7/spl times/10/sup -3//K have been achieved. Using two dopants has also permitted the creation of an n-type alloy with a composition of (Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 3/)/sub 70/(Sb/sub 2/Te/sub 3/)/sub 25/(Sb/sub 2/Se/sub 3/)/sub 5/. Previously n-type doping could not be achieved with a single dopant because the alloy as grown always exhibits p-type conductivity. Using Te and SbI/sub 3/ together as dopants, or SbI/sub 3/ by itself in this alloy produces n-type material with a figure of merit of 3.4/spl times/10/sup -3//K. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

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    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 14 , Issue: 12
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.1977.6501725
    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 78 - 83

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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