Cart (Loading....) | Create Account
Close category search window
 
Skip to Results

Search Results

You searched for: progress in the electric power industry
264 Results returned
Skip to Results
  • Save this Search
  • Download Citations Disabled
  • Save To Project
  • Email
  • Print
  • Export Results
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Progress in the Electric Power Industry

    Moultrop, I.E. ; Orrok, G.A.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: 70 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1951.5060677
    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 2059 - 2071

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The subject of this paper concerns the progress that has been made in the generation of electricity by steam and its distribution. It is significant that the two authors selected by your committee to discuss this subject are both power plant designers, and that their two working lifetimes cover the whole history of electric power generation since its beginning. That there has been progress in the electric power industry during this brief span of years is well illustrated by Figure 1, which shows that electrical residential rates on a national basis have a history of continuously lowering during the past 50 years while, at the same time, the cost index has been continuously rising. Where else than in the electric power industry can such a record of progress be shown? View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Data mining for customer load profile analysis

    Kitayama, M. ; Matsubara, R. ; Izui, Y.
    Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition 2002: Asia Pacific. IEEE/PES

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TDC.2002.1178509
    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 654 - 655 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the progressing liberalization of the electric power industry worldwide, Japan too revised its Electric Utility Industry Law in May 1999 and began partial liberalization in March 2000. The points of the liberalization were partial retail liberalization targeting extra-high-voltage customers whose power supply is 20 kV or above and whose contracted demand is 2000 kW or above, and to make it possible for these extra-high-voltage customers accounting for about 30% of the total power demand to freely select their electric power suppliers. In March 2002, there were nine Power Producers and Suppliers (PPSs) that applied to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry as new companies in the electric power industry. At present, there are about 50 examples showing that customers changed to new companies entering the electric power business from existing electric power utilities, but this number is very few if we compare the number with the number of customers of existing electric power utilities in terms of contracted electric power quantity. However, there are also examples showing a drop of about 20% in electric power charges by customers changing to new companies, and it should not be forgotten that more customers will change to other electric power sources in the future. In addition, there are many views that targets of liberalization will increase from the reconsideration of the partially liberalized system in 2003. If we suppose the range of liberalization will increase to include high-voltage customers, we can predict fierce competition between existing utilities and new entrants or other major utilities, since customers in liberalized sector should increase significantly compared with the current number. In a liberalized market, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is very important. CRM involves assessing customers yielding profits and constructing relationships with these customers through the implementation of ideal measures directed at the customers. In other words, although there are market-driven approaches looking at what market segments the traditional marketing serves, CRM is a customer-based market-driven approach that continuously offers products aiming at improving customer satisfaction for each and every customer as well as the idea of one-to- -one marketing in the marketing field. The electric power industry is an industry that had allowed local monopolies to date in the background of economies of scale, so it was unnecessary for electric power utilities to deeply understand customers. However, in order to effectively oppose new companies in liberalized sector, it is necessary for these utilities to recognize preferred customers based on customer profiles (e.g., load profile history). View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Power electronics and its applications to renewable energy in Japan

    Arai, J. ; Iba, K. ; Funabashi, T. ; Nakanishi, Y. ; Koyanagi, K. ; Yokoyama, R.
    Circuits and Systems Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 8 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MCAS.2008.928420
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 52 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (22)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The electric utility industry is gradually undergoing restructuring and the main paradigm shift is the introduction of the principles of competition. With the level of future demand for electricity being unclear, power market players are reluctant to commit to long-term capital investment, with the result that construction of new large-scale power plants and also transmission and distribution infrastructure is typically being avoided. At the same time, power facilities are being upgraded in response to business strategies for bringing a profit in power markets and for keeping supply reliability for customers. Under such circumstances of competitive power markets, practical use of renewable and distributed energy generation offers an attractive alternative for power supply. The advantages include a short construction cycle as the supply can be located near to the demand, being less of a burden to the existing transmission network, and contributing to prevention of global warming through clean combustion using novel energy technologies such as natural gas co-generation, natural gas micro turbines, or fuel cells. Distributed generations using renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy are also attracting attention. Regarding practical use of renewal energy in Japan, a new set of requirements advents. The first is the development of a set of policies for promoting power generated from renewable energy. The second is to evaluate the influence of distributed generations from renewable energy on the quality and reliability of the electricity. The third is the establishment of the technology requirements for interconnection with the power grid. The fourth is the development of future energy supply networks such as Power parks, Microgrids, and Smart grids. In implementing future energy supply networks utilizing renewable energy, power electronic devices are widely used to interface some forms of renewable energy generations and energy storages to distribution n- - etworks, and their use is likely to increase remarkably in the near future. The development of these power electronics is benefiting from the rapid advancements in the capability of power semiconductor switching devices and in the progress being made in the design and control of variable-speed drives for large motors. The most diffused application of power electronic devices is to invert the DC generated from some dispersed energy resources (e.g. photo voltaic fuel cells, micro turbines and battery storages) to existing 50/60 Hz AC. Also, power electronic devices are used to decouple rotating generates from the network and so potentially increase the efficiency of the operation of the prime mover by ensuring that they operate at their most efficient speed for the range of input power. For example, power electronics are used to support variable-speed wind turbines and are also now being proposed for some forms of small hydro-generation and energy storages during transients. In this article, we will discuss the role of power electronics for renewable energy utilizations and the kinds of infrastructure that should be designed and how this should be pursued in order to maintain high reliability and quality for future energy supply networks in the restructured electricity markets. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Greener steel maldng process by microwave irradiation with discharges

    Sato, M. ; Nagata, Kazuhiro ; Matsubara, A. ; Takayama, Sadatsugu
    Plasma Science, 2008. ICOPS 2008. IEEE 35th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/PLASMA.2008.4590830
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Highly pure pig irons were produced from powdered iron ores and carbons in a multimode microwave reactor. Microwaves create two different steps that enhance chemical reactions at the grain boundaries very rapidly to finish the reduction process. The visible light spectroscopic monitored the progress of the reactions. The powders absolve and radiate the continuous spectrum of blackbody emission under the temperature of 650degC. The magnetic fields couples directly and heats to the ores in this process. At above 650degC, the small hot spots rise, move and finally the microscopic arcing spots burst in to all over the surface emitting with brighter line spectrums. Carbon nitride molecules and Fe (I) atoms were identified in the recorded spectrum. These bursts are similar to the "ignition propagation" that is observed in chemical reactions. The line spectra originated from CO molecules have not been detected yet. The solid-solid reaction could be expected between the iron oxides and carbon to produce CO2 directly. A loss in the sample weight was accelerated during the excess-emission. These are the clear evidence that microwaves cause thermally non-equilibrium state and accelerate reduction process. The electric field of microwave plays an important role in the second step. Microwave energy penetrated into the powder matrix and made small arcing between the powders. The electrons got kinetic energy from the microwave electric field and the accelerated electrons gave the kinetic energy to the powders. It looks similar process to the electric arc furnace. However, the difference was that the microwave carried the electric field energy directly in to the powder matrix and created high temperature electrons just in the powders. The conversion efficiency from the plasma electrons to ores could be expected to be 100% theoretically. The reduction of iron ore is completed at 1380degC and very pure pig iron was remained. The impurity level of Mg, S, Si, P and Ti was on- - ly 5-10% of what was found in the pig irons produced by modern conventional blast. The amount of carbon was half to produce the unit weight of pig iron in comparison to conventional blast. If we applied renewable energy or nuclear power plants to generate the microwaves, we can save 6% of carbon exhaust in the steel making industries. Several hundreds megawatts microwave systems will be required to replace all the existing classic blast furnaces all in the worlds. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    The water power situation, including its financial aspect

    Dunn, Gano
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the

    Volume: 35 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/PAIEE.1916.6590619
    Publication Year: 1916 , Page(s): 575 - 590

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The endeavor of this paper is to present, from the point of view of the engineer, certain aspects of the attitude of capital towards water powers. Actual and threatened laws, popular prejudices, and some cases of unprofitable developments in the past, have retarded the development of water powers, but there are also physical and natural difficulties which handicap hydroelectric as compared with steam-electric plants, and make it essential that a reasonable profit in promotion be offered, in order to induce investment. The cost of water power is rising, on account of the increasing cost of labor and materials and increasing taxation, and the efficiency of the utilization of water power has practically reached its maximum. On the other hand, the cost of steam-electric power is falling, in spite of a steady rise in the cost of coal, because continual improvements are being made in the efficiency of conversion of heat energy into mechanical power, and still further progress is to be looked for. To offset this disadvantage there is the possibility of utilizing large amounts of secondary power from hydroelectric plants for industries and process purposes that do not necessarily require continuous power. The hydroelectric plant usually requires about three times the capital investment needed for a steam-electric plant of equal capacity, and the activity of capital in a hydroelectric plant is very low, much lower than in a steam station and in almost all other branches of industry. State regulatory bodies have hampered water powers by not recognizing the distinction between bond interest as a compulsory expense paid as the rent for money loaned, and dividends as an earned reward for the risk of the business and skill in management. Another factor that must be more clearly determined in order that the hampering effect of uncertainty may be removed, is the length of time a permit or franchise may run before recapture clauses can take effect, and the question whether these pr- visions should not cover the power development in its entirety. Water power should be developed as a matter of conservation, to save our coal supply that is being so steadily depleted. This purpose cannot be served unless the attitude toward water power development is changed and some of the present restrictive factors ameliorated so that investors in water power bonds will be satisfied with five per cent interest instead of requiring seven per cent because of the risks they incur at present. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Pervasive Computing: Implications, Opportunities and Challenges for the Society

    Venkataramana, Y.
    Pervasive Computing and Applications, 2006 1st International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SPCA.2006.297455
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 5
    Cited by:  Papers (7)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. Pervasive computing, also referred to sometimes as ubiquitous computing deals with the idea of making "computing power" available anyplace, anytime in a uniform way so that it may be exploited for meeting the challenges faced by society. The obvious analogy to this is the electric power infrastructures, which made the society's work and play more effective and enjoyable. Can pervasive computing also have a similar or greater impact on society? The answer is undoubtedly a resounding yes. However, we have a long way to go and overcome many a challenge. In this talk, we discuss these issues: the implications, opportunities and challenges pervasive computing. There have been steady advances in the area of computing hardware contributing to the dramatic affordability of computers. The revolution brought about by the Internet and the liberalization of the communications industry has brought the world closer. Now, it is no longer possible to even define what device may be termed a computer as "computing" becomes embedded in everyday appliances large and small ranging from cars to washing machines. The merger of computing and communications together with miniaturization is leading the way. However, for the promise of pervasive computing to frilly materialize, technology and support structures need to advance along four directions: computing, communication, cognition, and collaboration - the 4Cs of pervasive computing. Among the 4Cs the first two: computing and communications are rapidly advancing especially with the introduction of GPS as an embedded service. For a user to truly benefit from pervasive computing, the first two Cs are not enough. The supporting systems need to exhibit cognition - an understanding of the situation or "context awareness" as it is often called. For over fifty years the field of artificial intelligence has contributed many ideas (expert systems, planning, and natural language understanding - to name a few). The ideas of- agent based computing and service based architectures are making contributions in this regard. The field of CSCW (computer supported collaborative work) and related research are contributing to the fourth C as it tries to make the world small by enabling people worldwide to work together - albeit with the great inconvenience of dealing with myriad disparate tools, technologies and standards. It is not difficult to speculate how the world of tomorrow will be as we make steady progress on the 4Cs and the resulting advances in pervasive computing. A few are listed below: knowledge workers - a universal knowledge based assistant that helps you to work seamlessly in your local space or shared space exploiting the ambient computing and connectivity; intelligent transportation - a car that avoids accidents, repairs itself and adapts itself to the geographic location and services that are accessible; pervasive healthcare - physicians who can diagnose and treat (reprogramming a device!) patients anywhere and anytime; context-aware appliances - washing machines that know the requirements of clothes that are about to be washed; and enterprises - routine formation of collaborative enterprises worldwide. These are but a few of the exciting things that await us as we come to terms with pervasive computing. However, we need to be cognizant about the many challenges such as loss of privacy and freedoms that are cherished by the societies View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Three decades of progress in electrical insulation

    Berberich, L. J.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part I: Communication and Electronics, Transactions of the

    Volume: 78 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TCE.1959.6372990
    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 237 - 248

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The last 30 years cover a period marked by outstanding advances in certain areas of electrical insulation. This period begins with what might be termed the synthetic-chemical age and ends with the beginning of the space age. Specifically, the paper records briefly the progress made in the theoretical phase of the field, the development of new insulating materials, the revision of the electrical insulation temperature standards, and the application of insulating materials to power equipment. The progress made in the development of materials, many of which were unheard of 30 years ago, has been truly phenomenal. This has resulted in marked advances in the design of new equipment. A few of these advances in the power field are discussed. Progress made in insulation temperature standards has resulted in new revolutionary methods of rating insulating materials and systems of materials as used in electric equipment. This has enabled the electrical industry to take better advantage of the host of new synthetic materials developed during the period covered by this review. This period may be characterized as one in which research and development in the insulation-materials area has, in a marked way, stimulated radical advances in design, reliability, and performance of electrical equipment. No radically new advances were made in the theoretical phase of the field, but the gradual progress made in the underlying theories has contributed considerably to our understanding of dielectric phenomena, especially in the liquid- and solid-state areas. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    The Water Power Situation, Including its Financial Aspect

    Dunn, Gano
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: XXXV , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1916.4765392
    Publication Year: 1916 , Page(s): 441 - 477

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The endeavor of this paper is to present, from the point of view of the engineer, certain aspects of the attitude of capital towards water powers. Actual and threatened laws, popular prejudices, and some cases of unprofitable developments in the past, have retarded the development of water powers, but there are also physical and natural difficulties which handicap hydroelectric as compared with steam-electric plants, and make it essential that a reasonable profit in promotion be offered, in order to induce investment. The cost of water power is rising, on account of the increasing cost of labor and materials and increasing taxation, and the efficiency of the utilization of water power has practically reached its maximum. On the other hand, the cost of steam-electric power is falling, in spite of a steady rise in the cost of coal, because continual improvements are being made in the efficiency of conversion of heat energy into mechanical power, and still further progress is to be looked for. To offset the disadvantage of the increasing cost of water power there is the possibility of utilizing large amounts of secondary power from hydroelectric plants for industries and process purposes that do not necessarily require continuous power. The hydroelectric plant usually requires about three times the capital investment needed for a steam-electric plant of equal capacity, and the activity of capital in a hydroelectric plant is very low, much lower than in a steam station and in almost all other branches of industry. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Transmission reliability and security under open access

    Ilic, M.
    Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2004. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2004.1372819
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 403 - 405 Vol.1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper the author suggests that many of the challenges presented are direct result of the institutional dichotomy within the once vertically integrated industry. Namely, while the generation portion of this industry has made major progress toward becoming for profit, value-based industry, both the delivery (transmission) and the end user (distribution) remainders are left without any clear institutional support to adjust and provide their value to the end users in the changing industry. Moreover, since the efficient and reliable operation of the electric power grid is very complex, the engineers have relied heavily over the past 20-30 years on on-line system monitoring (including state estimation), and computer methods for decision-making and system automation. These tools are difficult to develop and use for supporting efficient generation, delivery and consumption without bringing the system closer to the limits of what is possible. The lack of real economic incentives to push the system operations to its limits for efficiency reasons combined with the complexities and risks of operating close to the system stability margins has resulted in the predictable situation the industry is currently facing. Also, the she suggested that in order to move forward and provide some more natural ways of valuing generation, transmission, distribution and customers' willingness to respond to the changing system constraints, several issues must be solved. In this presentation we introduce some possible institutional and technological approaches to solving the system reliability problems in the changing industry. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    1949 Engineering developments: Reviewed by AIEE technical committees


    Electrical Engineering

    Volume: 69 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/EE.1950.6434086
    Publication Year: 1950 , Page(s): 1 - 11

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    DURING the year 1949, important engineering developments have taken place in each of five broad fields of Institute activity: communication, science and electronics, power, general applications, and industry. In the field of communication, the television network has been extended and more than 100 television stations soon will be in operation. Development of color television has continued and two basically different systems have been demonstrated before the Federal Communications Commission with a third system scheduled for demonstration early in 1950. In the field of science and electronics, the application of computing devices of all sizes to business procedures has received increased attention. The emergence of the concept of “information theory” as a means of extending and rationalizing the limiting boundaries of measurement and communication by the use of statistical theory marks a milestone of progress. In the field of power, an all-time peak of installed generating capacity totalling 6,929,201 kw during the year has been achieved. The General Electric Company opened a new high-voltage laboratory at Pittsfield with many refinements for the controlled testing of high-voltage apparatus under various conditions. Research and investigation of power transmission at higher voltages continues at the Tidd experimental station which is a co-operative effort of the American Gas and Electric Service Corporation, and eight other electrical manufacturers. In the field of industry, new arc and resistance welding techniques have found wide-scale adoption. More precise and compact controls have been developed and applied to a variety of specialized machines. In the field of general applications, definite trends in domestic appliances have been recorded and many significant developments in the production and application of light have taken place, as well as noteworthy experiments in railway motive power. Some of these 1949 engineering developments and a few ot- ers are reviewed by the AIEE technical committees. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Exploiting Phase Fluctuations to Improve Machine Performance Monitoring

    Venugopal, S. ; Wagstaff, R.A. ; Sharma, J.P.
    Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 4 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TASE.2006.879918
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 153 - 166

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Machines are an integral and important part of modern life. Machine condition monitoring is of vital importance to modern industry in its quest for higher reliability, quality, and efficiency. A new signal-processing technique for machine performance monitoring is presented. This new technique exploits fluctuations in phase angles of machine rotational frequency signals to determine their dynamic temporal coherence. Temporal coherence is the key to automatically identify a fault condition and assess its severity. The exploitation of temporal coherence also provides increased spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Tests were conducted on an edger trimmer ball bearing assembly that was subjected to different levels of fault conditions, such as a hairline crack on the outer race and sand contamination in the bearing. An electric fan motor with bearing faults was also tested. The fault identification capabilities of incoherent power averaging are compared with those of the new coherence processors. Some rotational signals could not be identified in the average power spectra and, therefore, the average power could not be used for monitoring these signals. However, they were easily identified in the spectra of the new processors, with their increased SNR gain, and were used successfully for machine performance monitoring and diagnostics. This new processing capability for quantifying and exploiting the dynamic temporal coherences of a machine's signals provides a valuable capability for detecting existing and developing faults, and for monitoring their progress. This is also true during the startup and shutdown phases of machines, when their speeds and corresponding rotational frequencies are changing. Note to Practitioners - General guidance for monitoring a machine's performance is included below. Calculate the coherence parameter phi and establish the base-line temporal coherences of a machine operating in good condition for future reference, or for a s- - imilar machine that is known to be in good operating condition. Continuously monitor the machine's rotational signals via accelerometer or microphone, measuring the temporal coherences using the FFT-derived coherence parameter phi. Calculate/display the temporal coherence time histories of phi for the rotational signals. Analyze the phi coherence patterns. A constant thickness, continuously nonrandom, phi temporal coherence time history pattern, indicates fault-free machine operation. A decreasing spread in the phi time history pattern with time indicates increasing temporal coherence of a rotational frequency component due to a mechanical fault. The frequency indicates which machine component is faulty. Possible problem: a fault associated with a bearing (e.g., a crack in a bearing race). A broadening phi time history pattern of a rotational frequency component indicates decreasing temporal coherence. Possible problems: need for maintenance, worn out lubrication, or foreign matter (dust, grit, sand) in the bearing View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Electricity in horticulture

    Procter, F.M. ; Weir, J.A.C.
    Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the Institution of

    Volume: 120 , Issue: 10 , Part: R
    DOI: 10.1049/piee.1973.0240
    Publication Year: 1973 , Page(s): 1133 - 1164

    IET Journals & Magazines

    British horticulture has developed from a way of life to an industry run on factory lines, where all facets of growing, from seed sowing to marketing, depend on precise control of the environment and maximum operating efficiency. The need to improve the output and quality of greenhouse crops has demanded a strict control of plant climate; the increasing cost of labour, the drift of workers to factories and the restriction of the working week to five days has forced growers to adopt mechanised and automatic methods from seed sowing to harvesting. In 20 years the industry has progressed from using practically no electricity to being completely reliant upon it. A grower without a standby generator could face serious financial loss. Although electricity is not used as a source of heat except in very small holdings, it is essential for ancillary equipment and for the close control of the plant climate, with automatically operated heating, ventilating and watering systems. Concentrating the heat where it is wanted (e.g. in the soil or on the bench) with soil-warming cables can effect economies. There are spectacular results being obtained by using supplementary lighting and propagating plants in a completely controlled environment (i.e. a growing room where heating, ventilating, watering and lighting are provided). The increasing use of ?nightbreak? and ?dusk-to-dawn? lighting enable crops to be produced all the year round to meet market requirements. There are improved methods of rooting cuttings and germinating seeds under intermittent mist, and also of germinating seeds in a germinating cabinet. The grower relies on electric power to shred and mix composts, fill pots, make soil blocks, plant and gather many crops, move material about the holding, and to pump water for irrigation and frost protection of field crops. There is an increasing use of cool stores to hold cuttings until the propagating benches are ready, to store fruit, vegetables and flowers for a favourable - - market, and to remove quickly field heat from greenhouse and field crops as the first step of a cool chain from grower to consumer. Air-supported plastics houses are an alternative to rigid structures, one such experimental ?house? having rigid sides and an inflated roof. Mushrooms are a crop with considerable potential here as air conditioning in the growing sheds is now essential for maximum crop output. The British horticulture industry still needs extensive research and development to be done, particularly in the full and economic use of all forms of lighting for plant production. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Planning of Systems

    Kirchmayer, L.K.
    Military Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 8 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TME.1964.4323120
    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 54 - 58

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The methodology of planning systems to meet stated goals in an optimum manner while recognizing all pertinent constraints is being given increasing attention by systems engineers. In the electric utility industry the greatly increased complexity of the systems required to meet anticipated load growth, the advent of large-scale interconnection of systems, increasing investment costs and the pressure for continued economy of service have necessitated continuing efforts to achieve more comprehensive and exacting approaches to system planning. Significant progress in system planning has been achieved to date in the electric utility industry. Integrated digital computer programs have been devised which permit the modeling of the technical and economic performance of future system design alternatives and aid the system planner in obtaining an optimum total system beginning with the sources of fuel and ending with the final delivery of power to the customer. By the methods presented in this paper the total present worth cost of various alternative system designs may be readily obtained. Limited work has been undertaken concerning the direct optimum synthesis of a system plan. The major difficulty in direct synthesis arises from the complex interrelationships of the variables and the high dimensionality of the problem. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Status of joint development and research on noise frequency induction

    Wills, H.L. ; Blackwell, O.B.
    Bell System Technical Journal, The

    Volume: 10 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1931.tb01271.x
    Publication Year: 1931 , Page(s): 184 - 205

    Alcatel-Lucent Journal

    The work of finding out the technical facts bearing on the problems of the physical relations of power and telephone circuits was intrusted to the Joint Subcommittee on Development and Research of the National Electric Light Association and the Bell System. This paper has to do with this fact-finding work so far as it concerns noise frequency induction. The work on inductive coordination may be classified into three groups of factors: 1. Influence factors which concern the characteristics of the power circuits. 2. Susceptiveness factors which concern the characteristics of the communication circuits. 3. Coupling factors which concern the interrelation of power and communication circuits. The paper discusses these various factors in detail and describes the work done by the committee or in progress regarding them. References are given to published reports and papers which present the results of technical studies already completed. Many of the existing noise frequency induction problems have arisen because of the development of the art of the two industries without such close cooperation between them as now exists. It is becoming evident, from the work of this Joint Subcommittee, that while it is not practicable to design machinery and apparatus for power systems to be entirely free of harmonics, or to ideally balance either power or telephone circuits, it is possible to control these factors within limits which, in conjunction with the control of coupling obtainable by cooperative planning of routes and coordination of transpositions, permit satisfactory operation of both services without unduly burdening either. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Technical problems of the tanning industry

    Broughton, W.E. ; Brophy, J.J.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Journal of the

    Volume: 41 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/JoAIEE.1922.6593177
    Publication Year: 1922 , Page(s): 646 - 649

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The object of this article is to present a composite engineering view of one of the world's oldest industries, for the purpose of directing the attention of the electrical engineer toward some of the more urgent requirements of this industry, which, being primarily electrical, he in particular is peculiarly able to furnish. The article outlines engineering principles applied in the art of leather making, while views, taken in modern tanneries, show typical manufacturing processes in the two main divisions of the industry. To facilitate visualizing engineering progress in the art, a brief description of manufacturing processes is included as a feature of the treatise. Some recent developments, in the form of mechanical-electrical units, now coming into use, are also illustrated and described; while the article concludes with a table of motor horse power requirements for the individual machine operations performed in making leather. The authors acknowledge having been assisted in preparing the manuscript with statistics and photographs made available through the courtesy of Tanners Council, New York City, General Electric Company, and the First National Bank of Boston, Mass. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Advanced Control Rooms for Boiling Water Reactors the Nuclenet Control Complex

    Stokes, Harry ; Gummersall, Steve ; Shukla, J. N. ; Johnson, R. L. (Rye)
    Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 20 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TNS.1973.4326999
    Publication Year: 1973 , Page(s): 786 - 800
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Nuclear power plants are progressing rapidly to provide reliable and inexpensive power in increasingly large blocks. These power plants are an extensively engineered product involving a complex array of systems and subsystems, all of which must be monitored and controlled. The complexity of these systems and their interface to other systems is now placing a severe burden on the operator. The operator of today must interface with thousands of control and display devices to monitor and control the plant. He must continuously monitor and analyze, on a selective basis, numerous variables in order to effectively control the plant. During abnormal operations, the operator must assimilate information from the vast amount of data available to him and correctly interpret and respond to the abnormal condition within a short period of time. The human capability to perform under these circumstances is rapidly becoming a critical factor in plant operations and control systems design. The General Electric Company, having been in the forefront of nuclear plant control systems design since the introduction of nuclear power to industry, has recognized this and for the past several years has been developing advanced control systems to improve the operator's interface with the plant. This paper describes the first generation of our advanced control systems and previews the next generation of designs. It discusses the design criteria used, a detailed description, and the associated benefits and advantages of what the General Electric Company calls the Nuclenet Control Complex. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Review of technologies and implementation strategies in the area of Smart Grid

    Khan, H.A. ; Zhen Xu ; Iu, H. ; Sreeram, V.
    Power Engineering Conference, 2009. AUPEC 2009. Australasian Universities

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Currently there is a global concern about the economic downturn and a greener Earth which is related to a better and efficient method to generate and transmit electric power. With the advent of the plug-in electric vehicles and renewable energy generators, a smarter, more efficient and customer-friendly power grid is essential. Progress is underway for the development of technologies which can improve the quality, efficiency & reliability of the existing transmitted electric power. Governments and sponsors around the world are investing in R&D strategies to construct a smart electric power infrastructure which supports the decentralized approach of power generation, employs two - way intelligent communications for real time monitoring, utilizes demand & fault management and latest security protocols to contribute towards a rigid and attack free electric power network. This paper gives suggestions to emerging novel solutions by utilizing the current advancements and technologies in the area of smart electric power system. It also depicts how smart grid addresses the current issues in the power industry. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    The future of electricity supply in matabeleland

    Sibson, A.R.
    Electrical Engineers - Part II: Power Engineering, Journal of the Institution of

    Volume: 92 , Issue: 25
    DOI: 10.1049/ji-2.1945.0002
    Publication Year: 1945

    IET Journals & Magazines

    After just over fifty years' existence as a portion of the British Empire, Southern Rhodesia is now coming to life industrially. The problems of electricity supply require careful consideration if the Colony is to progress on sound economic lines, and this paper seeks to assist in laying the foundation of a policy aimed at ensuring such progress. The existing economic and geographical conditions are first outlined, together with the sources of raw materials, power and water. The probable development of basic industries in Matabeleland is discussed and other possible avenues of electricity consumption are detailed, including railway traction and the natural growth of existing load centres. The author then investigates three different methods of supplying the power demand of the future, two of which involve the transmission of large blocks of power over distances in excess of 200 miles. The peculiar problems inherent in long-distance transmission in Rhodesia are dealt with, and the economics of overhead lines operating at 250 kV are examined. The author reaches the final conclusion that the use of hydro-electric power, up to a total of 100 000 kW, from the Victoria Falls should be seriously considered as a part of a comprehensive scheme for future supplies. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    IV. NRC's new zeal, a face-lift, and increased regulation


    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 18 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.1981.6369476
    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 40 - 42

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    If the TMI accident hit utility managers like ice water, it was no less shocking to the regulators in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Post-TMI study groups sharply criticized the agency's personnel, structure, and pre-TMI laxities. Critics asked: Why did the NRC not strictly enforce compliance with its safety regulations? Why was there no strong leadership directing the agency's priorities? Why did the agency fail to examine every abnormal operating event and disseminate the information throughout the nuclear industry? Some of the questions have been brought into the courtroom. General Public Utilities, the owner of the crippled TMI reactor, has filed suit against the NRC for $4 billion alleging inadequate oversight of safety. GPU charges that the TMI accident might not have happened if the NRC had told the utility about an incident at the Davis-Besse reactor in Ohio, during which a sequence of events almost identical to those that triggered TMI occurred. (The incident at the Davis-Besse reactor, owned jointly by the Toledo Edison Co. and the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., occurred at low power and did not progress as far as the TMI accident.) View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Hopfield neural network computation as an alternative solution for solving economic dispatch in power system

    Amirruddin, M. ; Zin, A.A.M.
    Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO), 2011 5th International

    DOI: 10.1109/PEOCO.2011.5970411
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 346 - 351

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In modern industrialized society, an Economic Dispatch (ED) of power generating units has always been occupied an important position in the electric power industry. This paper presents a Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) computation method to solve ED problem in power systems. HNN computation is expected to be reliable since HNN is essential for its progress. The objective of this paper is to describe how a new method to solve the ED in power system is developed since HNN is the faster alternative method in predicting problem in ED. A new mapping process is formulated and how to obtain the weighting factors is also described in this paper. Then, a simulation algorithm is described to solve the dynamic equation of the HNN. To solve the ED problem, the power mismatch, total fuel cost and the transmission line losses along with their associated weighting factors are defined. The results obtained gives less computational time compared to the Lambda-iteration method. Furthermore, the results also indicate that the HNN computation performs significantly better than conventional method, Lambda-iteration method. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Control of particle dynamics in a compact size gas insulated busduct with dielectric films

    Kumar, G.V.N. ; Amarnath, J. ; Singh, B.P. ; Chowdary, D.D.
    India Conference, 2008. INDICON 2008. Annual IEEE

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/INDCON.2008.4768768
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 465 - 470

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The development of compressed gas insulated switchgear (GIS) equipment has progressed rapidly. Conducting particles in transmission and switching equipment insulated by compressed sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) can result in loss of as much as 90% of the gas dielectric strength. These particles may be free to move in the electric field or may be fixed on the conductors, thus enhancing local surface fields. In a horizontal coaxial system with particles resting on the inside surface of the enclosure, the motion of such particles is random but the randomness depends on the coefficient of restitution and angle of incidence when approaching the coaxial conductors. The power industry has utilized several methods to control and minimize the effect of particle contamination in GIS. One such technique is to apply a dielectric (high resistivity) coating to the inside surface of the outer GIS enclosure. The electric field necessary to lift a particle resting on the inside surface of a GIS enclosure is much increased due to the coating. The simulation of the particle movement was carried under different AC voltage levels for coated and uncoated cases. The results have been presented and analyzed. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    The Application BP Neural Network Improved and Fuzzy Quality Synthetic on Electric Power Business Economic Benefit

    Shuliang Liu ; Yanling Bai ; Congyi Zou
    Challenges in Environmental Science and Computer Engineering (CESCE), 2010 International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/CESCE.2010.170
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 369 - 372

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Under of the market economy condition, enterprise's economic efficiency is one of factors determining the enterprise survival and development, and is playing more and more vital role. Therefore, as one kind of advanced productive forces and the basic industry, the electric power enterprise's economic efficiency has promotion effect on promoting the national economy development and the social progress, also became a matter which the investor and produces the operator concerned. In order to make the correct decision-making by the investor and the operator and promote the national economy fast growth, this article constructs the evaluating indicator system which sets several reasonable economic efficiencies, and has used the BP neural network and fuzzy quality synthetic to analoy the electric power enterprise's economic efficiency of several provinces, Thus helping enterprise find the potential or insufficient in the implementation of enhancing in the economic efficiency activity, learning the lessons, flawing the atonement, it is important to promote enterprise's economic efficiency. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Electricity in the cotton industry

    Cox, F.W. ; Swale, W.E.
    Proceedings of the IEE - Part II: Power Engineering

    Volume: 97 , Issue: 57
    DOI: 10.1049/pi-2.1950.0099
    Publication Year: 1950 , Page(s): 311 - 328

    IET Journals & Magazines

    After outlining the scope and importance of cotton processing, the paper indicates the progress in electrification in this basic industry, in which a large amount of power is still supplied by private steam plant. The relative proportions of private generating plant and public power supply are analysed, and a marked tendency towards the increased use of public supply is noted. The power requirements of the different sections of the industry are examined in general. Some of the major problems in electric driving are discussed in greater detail. Mention is made of electric metering, wiring practice, and various other applications of electricity in lighting, air conditioning, material control, etc. Suggestions are made for further papers in which outstanding problems might be discussed. A glossary of terms used in the cotton industry is given in Appendix 13.3. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Behavior of metallic particles in a single phase gas insulated system with dielectric coated electrodes

    Kumar, G.V.N. ; Amarnath, J. ; Singh, B.P.
    Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis, 2008. CMD 2008. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CMD.2008.4580305
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 377 - 380
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The development of compressed gas insulated switchgear (GIS) equipment has progressed rapidly. Conducting particles in transmission and switching equipment insulated by compressed sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) can result in loss of as much as 90% of the gas dielectric strength. These particles may be free to move in the electric field or may be fixed on the conductors, thus enhancing local surface fields. In a horizontal coaxial system with particles resting on the inside surface of the enclosure, the motion of such particles is random but the randomness depends on the coefficient of restitution and angle of incidence when approaching the coaxial conductors. The power industry has utilized several methods to control and minimize the effect of particle contamination in GIS. One such technique is to apply a dielectric (high resistivity) coating to the inside surface of the outer GIS enclosure. The electric field necessary to lift a particle resting on the inside surface of a GIS enclosure is much increased due to the coating. The simulation of the particle movement was carried under different AC voltage levels for coated and uncoated cases. The results have been presented and analyzed. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    New Battery Technologies and their Potenkial Impact in the use of Energy in the Telephone Industry

    Burrows, B.W. ; Espig, H.R.
    Telephone Energy conference, 1978. INTELEC 78. International

    DOI: 10.1109/INTLEC.1978.734027
    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 219 - 223

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The principal use of batteries in the telecommunications industry k to provide standby or emergency dc power to telephone exchanges in the event of a failure or breakdown in the utility supply. Batteries are also used for standby power in microwave relay stations, for emergency lighting and a variety of other minor uses. Due to its low cost, long life and reliability the lead-acid battery dominates standby applications. Substantial developments are, however, in progress throughout the world to develop secondary batteries for use in electric vehicles and utility load-leveling. In addition, substantial improvements are being made in the development of compact, low-cost primary batteries such as those based on zinc-air and lithium technology. The characteristics of the lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems are reviewed and the systems under development are then described together with their predicted characteristics and costs. The possible impact in the telecommunications industry of these new developments in battery technology is discussed. View full abstract»

Skip to Results

SEARCH HISTORY

Search History is available using your personal IEEE account.

Need Help?


IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity About IEEE Xplore | Contact | Help | Terms of Use | Nondiscrimination Policy | Site Map | Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.