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    Making technology work in World War II

    Menaker, E.G.
    Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 8 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/62.216891
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 6 - 34

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The role played during World War II by small band of airman, hidden from public knowledge in a remote part of China, in bringing about victory over Japan is examined. Their actions represented the first major uses of airborne radar by the United States. The ways in which the group dealt with the challenge of turning the new technology of radar, which had just emerged from the laboratory, into an unusually effective weapon, is described by an officer who was responsible for preparing for the first maintenance of the equipment, implementing the maintenance, and contributing the technical expertise to the planning and evaluation of the operation. The low-altitude radar bombsight, AN/APQ-5 (LAB), designed to provide an electronic analog to the Norden high-altitude optical bombsight, is also described.<> View full abstract»

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    A brief history of electrical engineering education

    Terman, Frederick E.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 64 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1976.10333
    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 1399 - 1407
    Cited by:  Papers (12)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Electrical engineering curricula made their first appearance in the U.S. in the early 1880's as options in physics that aimed to prepare students to enter the new and rapidly growing electrical manufacturing industry. As this industry developed, so did electrical engineering education, and within a decade made a place for itself as an equal among the older engineering departments. The curricula that evolved followed the needs of the industry, and before World War I were concentrated largely on the properties of dc and ac circuits and equipment and associated systems of power distribution. Before World War I, little graduate work was carried on, and what passed in academic institutions for "research" was typically advanced testing. The standard career pattern was to receive a B.S. deggee and then obtain a job where one could learn how practical electrical work was done. After World War I, developments in broadcasting and communication led to the appearance of communication options within electrical engineering departments. Concurrently, students having a special interest in teaching or in research were increasingly encouraged to obtain the master's degree. However, the numbers who did so were small, and practically no electrical engineers sought a doctor's degree. For example, at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology in 1925 there was only one member of that large faculty who held an earned doctorate, while the background of about half of the faculty consisted of a bachelor's degree plus practical experience. Under these circumstances research performed in academic institutions was in most cases superficial, although here and there some significant work was carried on by an unusual professor. When World War II came along and brought into being such new electrical and electronic techniques such as radar, microwaves, control systems, guided missiles, proximity fuses, etc., the electrical engineers were caught unprepared. As a group they had neither the fundamental knowledge required to think creatively about these new concepts, nor the research experience to carry through. Thus most of the great electrical developments of the war were produced not by engineers, but rather by scientists, particularly physicists who had turned engineers for the duration. - In the decade after the war, electrical engineering education went throush a complete transformation. Prewar courses were drastically revised. Increased emphasis was placed on fundamentals, including particularly emphasis on physical and mathematical principles underlying electrical engineering. These results were achieved by reducing the time devoted to teaching engineering practice, by eliminating subjects such as surveying that were of little concern to electrical engineering, and by reducing the concentration on 60-cycle power. In addition, master's programs were developed that were direct extensions of the revised bachelor's program, and in time the master's degree became the recommended degree goal of the student who desired to follow a career in technical engineering. Concurrently, the doctor's degree became the objective of those who planned a career in academia or of research in industry, or who wanted training superior to that of their many classmates working for the master's degree. With government funds available, programs of studentfaculty research developed on many campuses that were the equal of the research being carried on in the best industrial laboratories. The combined effect of curriculum changes, more students carrying on graduate work, the existence of university research laboratories of the highest caliber with this research led by well-trained faculty aided by doctoral and master's candidates, has completely changed both the character and intellectual level of eletrical engineering on the campus. This is illustrated by the fact that in a 1969 survey of a representative group of major high technology firms, 82 percent agreed with the statemen View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Obituary [Robert Andrews Millikan]


    Electrical Engineering

    Volume: 73 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/EE.1954.6439263
    Publication Year: 1954 , Page(s): 181 - 182

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Issues in fidelity, architecture, and security for computer generated actors in network centric warfare simulations

    Banks, S.B. ; Stytz, M.R.
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2005. DASC 2005. The 24th

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/DASC.2005.1563481
    Publication Year: 2005

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The US military is in the midst of a far-reaching and in many ways unprecedented change in its philosophy, approach, and technologies used for warfare. The old days of massed formations, accurate but large weapons, and movement is being replaced by small formations (as small as one person), powerful, small but extremely accurate weapons, and high speed movement all augmented by rapid movement of information between and among all military components in the battlespace and from the battlespace back to rear areas and even to the logistics depots. For this future vision of high-speed, highly mobile warfare to be achieved and be effective there are a number of issues that must be addressed and solved in the real-world and in the world of simulation. In this paper, we will examine the impact that this switch in warfare paradigms will have on the world of simulation and focus particularly on the impact that this change will have on computer-generated actors and the new demands that will be placed upon them, both in the portrayal of friendly and enemy combatant forces. Clearly, these solutions will build upon much work performed before. Additionally, these solutions must draw upon experience and results in the fields of human behavior modeling, cultural modeling, modeling of adversarial decision making, and modeling of operations other than war in order to correctly model the friendly small units and enemy activity and responses within the context of simulations used for a variety of purposes ranging from training to acquisition. The new CGAs will have to be much more flexible in their planning and actions, more flexible in their software architectures, capable of more autonomous behavior, and be able to manage unexpected circumstances with minimal human intervention. In short, a new breed of CGAs are needed, ones that are more autonomous, capable, flexible, and "intelligent" than currently available CGAs. In addition, their knowledge bases require a degree of protection and security that is also unprecedented, especially when coupled with the need for ease of expansion and modification of the knowledge bases. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains a discussion of and motivation for our research. Section two holds a brief summary of previous work. Se- ction three presents a discussion of the architecture and security issues to be addressed and potential solutions for simulation CGAs. Section four contains a brief summary of the paper and suggestions for further research. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    “Defense Health Information System as a case study for national health IT”

    Seong Ki Mun
    Biomedical Science & Engineering Conference, 2009. BSEC 2009. First Annual ORNL

    DOI: 10.1109/BSEC.2009.5090451
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    Millimeter waves and Gaussian beams in modern communication

    Arora, R. ; Hopkinson, W.
    TENCON '98. 1998 IEEE Region 10 International Conference on Global Connectivity in Energy, Computer, Communication and Control

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TENCON.1998.798294
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 627 - 629 vol.2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. Remarkable pioneering experimental work in millimeter-wave techniques was done by Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose in Calcutta in the 1890s. He developed and used many of the microwave and millimeter wave quasi-optical components that are in use today, including waveguides, horn antennas, dielectric lenses, prisms and wave polarizers, and made the first experimental demonstration of wireless communication at a distance. Bose's experiments were carried out at wavelengths from 2.5 cm down to 5 mm. Curiously, interest in millimeter waves did not develop further until about the end of World War II when radar technology spurred interest in millimeter waves because of the obvious advantage of achieving sharp radiation beams using antennas of relatively small aperture. The 1960s witnessed much progress in millimeter wave technology with the development of Gunn and IMPATT diode oscillators. New uses of this technology in the fields of terrestrial and satellite communication emerged View full abstract»

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    A Multi-Agent System for information management and augmented reality in asymmetric wars

    De Castro, S. ; das Gracas Bruno Marietto, M. ; dos Santos Franca, R. ; Botelho, W.T.
    Internet Technology And Secured Transactions, 2012 International Conference for

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 499 - 504
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Actually, the armed forces around the world try to integrate the communication and information technologies in their command and control systems. Thus, new battles perspectives in asymmetrical wars are created. The soldiers, radars and the environment are interconnected. Also, they create a network of objects that interact with each other and display a dynamic and aggregated behavior. Therefore, the behavior that emerges in battlefields are modeled as a complex system. In such nonlinear dynamical system, it is possible to model these elements as entities that function continuously and autonomously in the environment where they take place. In this context, the theoretical structure and the technique of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) is suitable to model the battle situations. This work proposes a MAS composed of cyber agents (radar and helmets) that interact with human soldiers and commanders. In order to increase and enhance the knowledge of the battlefield in battle situations and also to improve the evaluation of the commanders in the process of the decision making, the integrated monitoring system with augmented reality is proposed in this work. View full abstract»

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    Developmental deep-water archaeology: a preliminary report on the investigation and excavation of the 19th-century side-wheel steamer SS Republic, lost in a storm off Savannah in 1865

    Dobson, N.C.
    OCEANS, 2005. Proceedings of MTS/IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/OCEANS.2005.1640011
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1761 - 1769 Vol. 2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As man explores and works deeper in the oceans of the world more shipwrecks and evidence of submerged prehistoric landscapes are likely to be discovered. However, the physical characteristics of the deep-water environment do not make it easy for man to work there. Access requires the use of high-tech ROVs (remotely operated vehicles), manned submersibles and the technology that goes along with them. The new discipline of deep-water marine archaeology is in its infancy and often questioned by traditional academics with regard to its relationship with the commercial sector. However, in order to advance marine archaeology to the present state of terrestrial archaeology, a relationship between the private and academic sector is necessary. During the last 15 years deep-water archaeological investigations have successfully been conducted in the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Norwegian Sea. These successes were due to collaborative efforts of the archaeologists, scientists and technicians familiar with the advanced underwater systems necessary. More projects in the future that combine technology and sound archaeological practices will contribute significantly to the development of acceptable deep-water archaeological methodologies. In 2003 Odyssey Marine Exploration of Tampa, Florida located the wreck of the 19th century side-wheel paddle steamer SS Republic lost in approximately 500 meters of water in the hostile environment of the Gulf Stream while en route from New York to New Orleans with post-war supplies and currency. The excavation of this site constituted the most extensive deep-water archaeological investigation ever carried out to date. This paper summarizes the results of the work and raises questions on the future of deep-water archaeology View full abstract»

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    Practice of Using Virtual Reconstruction in the Restoration of Monumental Painting of the Church of the Transfiguration of Our Saviour on Nereditsa Hill

    Petrova, Y.A. ; Tsimbal, I.V. ; Laska, T.V. ; Golubkov, S.V.
    Information Visualisation (IV), 2011 15th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IV.2011.33
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 389 - 394

    IEEE Conference Publications

    There are many architectural monuments and old relics, the restoration of which is an unrealizable task. This may be due to the great amount of hard work to be done, complexity of the work, lack of information about the object and other reasons. In such cases, the virtual reconstruction is an effective tool. Saint-Petersburg State University developed a method of restoration of partially or completely lost monumental paintings. As an example and a practical application of new technology there was completed the virtual reconstruction of fresco paintings of the Church of the Transfiguration of Our Savior on Nereditsa Hill. The church was almost completely destroyed during the Second World War. It appeared to be possible to reconstruct an architectural view of the church according to the old drawings, but rare frescos of the XIIth century had been irretrievably lost. The extant parts of frescoes consist of 325,000 pieces. Although they are being on restoration now, but this work is still far from completion. In this case the method of computer-based reconstruction is much more efficient, it helps us to avoid mistakes and find a compromise decision on the issue of reconstruction or restoration of the object. As a result of the project, a fairly accurate reconstruction of the object has been produced and a method of reconstruction of the lost fresco painting has been developed. The basis and sources of virtual reconstruction were archaeological materials, archival and contemporary historical, architectural and art papers, scientific research in this field. In the process of virtual reconstruction there were used two main methods: a technology of computer graphics as well as analog pictorial reconstruction. The first method makes it possible to complete the work of reconstruction with complete fidelity, whereas the second method helps us to convey the artist's style, to reproduce the form, direction and strength of the artist's touch and texture of the frescos. The resu- - lts of the project can be used for further practical work for the restoration of the object. The methodology, developed by authors of the project, may open new possibilities for the restoration of other fresco ensembles. View full abstract»

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    Who makes engineering knowledge? Changing identities of technical writers in the 20th century United States

    Longo, B.
    Professional Communication Conference, 1997. IPCC '97 Proceedings. Crossroads in Communication., 1997 IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/IPCC.1997.637031
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 61 - 68

    IEEE Conference Publications

    At the turn of the 20th century, technical writers in the United States were mostly engineers who both developed technology and wrote about it. During World War II, however, engineers seeking to increase the efficiency of technology development separated their engineering from their communication tasks. This trend opened up a new occupation for non-engineering technical writers who communicated knowledge made by engineers. While this specialization may have allowed engineers to develop technology more efficiently, it also allowed non-scientists to give voice to scientific knowledge and by the 1970s created tensions between practitioners in scientific fields and liberal arts-trained technical writers. How could non-scientists give scientific knowledge its material form through communication? Did this arrangement between engineers and writers too often render engineers mute within their own professions? This paper traces a history of technical writing practice in the United States and explores current trends in the academy which aim to prepare engineers more adequately for communicating about their work. Finally, this paper suggests that technical editors, as distinguished from traditional technical writers, can accommodate both an engineer's need to give voice to technology developments and a writer's contributions to shaping that voice into effective communication View full abstract»

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    Working with Japan to revitalise US industry

    Difilippo, A.
    Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 12 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/44.248103
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 21 - 27

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    It is noted that, during the post World War II period, Japan has moved from a nation that was largely dependent on foreign (US) technology to one that is demonstrating advanced SandT (science and technology) achievements. To the extent that people in the US have recognized the economic and SandT challenges coming from Japan, the situation has largely been perceived in a confrontational context. In spite of these perceptions, there is room for the US to exploit more fully the opportunities that have arisen in Japan. These opportunities offer the potential to improve the US SandT base, and to learn how to expedite the process of the commercialization of products, thus increasing US competitive prospects. It is suggested that, even if all of the available research opportunities to work in Japan were utilized, it would make good sense for the US to change the type of burden-sharing it repeatedly requests from the Japanese. Rather than continuously trying to persuade the Japanese to spend more on their military, the US should shift its focus and stress the need for increased spending by Japan to support more research stays there for Americans.<> View full abstract»

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    The radiation laboratory of johns hopkins university and memories of Donald D. King

    Cohn, M.
    Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), 2011 IEEE MTT-S International

    DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2011.5972637
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The Johns Hopkins University Radiation Laboratory was located in Baltimore, Maryland. Much of the early research at the Rad. Lab. was on proximity fuzes for surface based anti-aircraft artillery, evolving from World War II R&D. Pioneering work on millimeter wave propagation and component development was a major research effort during the early and mid 50's. The Director was Dr. Donald D. King. During his career Dr. King made many significant and documented contributions to the microwave technology. His career included the holding of many important positions in both the MTT-S and the IEEE culminating in being the President-Elect of the IEEE. View full abstract»

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    Distributed interactive simulation in the evolution of DoD warfare modeling and simulation

    Davis, P.K.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 83 , Issue: 8
    DOI: 10.1109/5.400454
    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1138 - 1155
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Distributed interactive simulation (DIS) is a revolutionary development that is changing permanently many features of Defense Department work. The field of warfare modeling and simulation (M&S) is quite large, however, and this paper reviews its evolution and how DIS fits within it. A few things are clear. First, DIS is exceedingly valuable for training. Second, DIS could be a powerful means for improving the quality of planning and analysis if used wisely for occasional well designed experiments. These could 1) provide insights about real-world processes involving human performance and behavior (including decision making), 2) help inform and calibrate models, and 3) help test plans in a quasioperational environment. Third, distributed war gaming, which depends on DIS technology, is already lowering boundaries among developers, planners, and warfighters. This can shorten development processes and improve the results through virtual prototyping; it can also improve operational readiness. To achieve these potential benefits, however, will require a holistic approach, conceptual breakthroughs, and profoundly difficult model development efforts. The challenges include developing integrated hierarchies of models, developing adaptive decision models and other models of human behavior, developing and using new forms of uncertainty-sensitive analysis, and learning how to use DIS experiments effectively View full abstract»

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    50 years of progress in measuring and controlling industrial processes

    Wilbanks, W.G.
    Control Systems, IEEE

    Volume: 16 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/37.482151
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 62, 64 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Looking back at measurement and control technologies during the past 50 years, we have seen the field change dramatically. We've witnessed the transition from manual and mechanical technology to pneumatic, electromechanical, electronic, and today's digital and information-based world. Along the way, the tools we use to do our jobs have changed just as dramatically, and thus the training and education we need to perform our work successfully. We've gone from drawing boards to computer graphics; from rotary telephones to digital fax machines: from slide rules to calculators: and, of course, from roomsize computers to laptops. Driving these changes are the demands of a changing world: the need to increase productivity and quality, global competition, and the need to more safely manufacture products that are environmentally friendly. During the past half-century, measurement and control professionals and technicians have made manufacturing history, while they've helped win wars and grow economies. From the author's perspective, he gives a snapshot look at some significant measurement and control highlights and milestones over the past 50 years View full abstract»

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    War on waste - [power energy efficiency]

    Allan, K.
    Engineering & Technology

    Volume: 4 , Issue: 8
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 50 - 53

    IET Journals & Magazines

    There has been much talk about energy saving in the home, but what is fact and what is fiction? E&T discovers that armed with the correct information consumers can make informed decisions that will counter rising energy bills. As engineers, energy efficiency has come to the forefront of not just our home lives, but also our working world. In the current climate both consumers and companies are looking for ways to save cash, but there's also a growing focus on 'going green'. Smart meters and displays are beginning to address these issues. However the bigger picture is changing mindsets and becoming more aware of how you use energy. View full abstract»

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    God Made Lots of Small Crystals"

    Thompson, R.
    Crystal Clear:The Struggle for Reliable Communications Technology in World War II

    DOI: 10.1109/9780470051290.ch8
    Page(s): 129 - 144
    Copyright Year: 2006

    Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

    This chapter contains sections titled:
    Our Biggest Quartz Mine Lies in More Efficient Fabrication"
    All Preparation Must Be Made Now ... for Using Scrap, Small Crystals, and Low-Quality Crystals Previously Not Considered Worth Cutting"
    Mr. Blasier Claimed That Optically and Electrically Twinned Blanks Can Be Used Successfully for Oscillators"
    There Are a Number of American Localities That Produce Single Quartz Crystals Suitable for Radio or Optical Work, Notably the Region Around Hot Springs, Arkansas"
    Nothing in the Present Situation Justifies the Expenditure of Effort and Money to Produce Artificially Grown Quartz Crystals" View full abstract»

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    Basic research in space science: Meaningful collaboration with developing countries

    Maurice, M.S. ; Masoni, S.C. ; York, G. ; Won, D.C.
    Recent Advances in Space Technologies, 2009. RAST '09. 4th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/RAST.2009.5158175
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The U.S. Air Force looks world-wide to bring cutting edge basic research into its portfolio. In years past, this research primarily came from Western Europe. Since the early 1990's, however, the Air Force has expanded its collaborations significantly, and works with countries made accessible following the Cold War; countries that have developed new world-class capabilities; and countries with new and emerging scientific promise. Space weather, for example, is an emerging area of international interest, and is developing quickly in regions such as Africa. Other research, such as materials, also has significant pockets of excellence in developing countries, and is pervasive to include space applications. For applied space science and space hardware, however, U.S. export control regulations are a significant consideration in any collaboration. In addition, many developing countries require external funding sources to develop their scientific infrastructure. To that end, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the National Science Foundation are exploring ways to work collaboratively in these regions. View full abstract»

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    Wartime women at work [First World Warwomen in Engineering]

    Birkett, D.
    Engineering & Technology

    Volume: 9 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1049/et.2014.0607
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 52 - 55

    IET Journals & Magazines

    It was 1916, and at the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich, London, over 30,000 women were recruited to handle explosives, work on the cranes and assemble weapons. In Barrow, Vickers employed more than 7,000 female workers under well-paid female superintendents. In Tongland, a tiny village in the south-west of Scotland, at a factory dubbed The Feminist Munition Factory, women were making shells. The world was at war, and the whole of British society was pulling together. Women were manning the Home Front, producing the munitions, driving the transport and helping construct the machinery that would lead to victory. Yet just two years earlier, even a few hundred women having these roles would have been inconceivable. Before 1914, the main purpose of a woman in engineering was as a mere ornament. In early 20th Century Mazda advertisements, a brightly smiling woman holds up the lightbulb. That was thought to be the limits of her technical capabilities. It would take a cataclysm for women to enter technical fields in large numbers. View full abstract»

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    Globalization and new world order: are we ready for "Scientists without Borders"?

    Kouchner, B.
    Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 15 , Issue: 2 , Part: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2005.849499
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1071 - 1077

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Since the end of the cold war and the fall of the Berlin wall, large scientific projects, such as the LHC and ITER, are now based on international collaborations involving most world powers. These collaborations cover not only the design, but also run the construction and operation phases. Scientists, like other cultural and economical actors, have to adapt and organize their work in this new world environment. They also need to learn how to convince public opinion, offering information and transparency. There is no good model yet on how to do that in the most efficient way and a great deal might be learned by looking at experiences outside the scientific field. Relying on my experience as founder of "Doctors Without Borders" and "Doctors of the World", as well as holder of several ministerial positions in different French governments and as former Head of the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, I share with you my view on globalization and on how to initiate and carry out large international, nonprofit technology programs. View full abstract»

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    Risk management strategy for semiconductor fabs - started from game theory

    Liu, E. ; Chun Yi
    Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Workshop Proceedings, 2004

    DOI: 10.1109/SMTW.2004.1393763
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 194 - 196

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The ever changing and the more competitive hi-tech environment, the business units always have the profit and product as first priority. But normally the wishes are not always come true, some outrages can prohibit the managers to reach their business goal. One of the example is the semiconductor business are very good in 1999. No one will expect that there will be a power outage (once in a 10 years Taipower history in Hsin Chu area). The following is the 100 years catastrophic earthquake in September 21. Around the world, there are lots of catastrophic events like Iraq wars, 911 terrorist attack and nature disaster, which might impact the business. The question that is raised by senior managers is: (1) are the events predictable? (2) any strategies to control the damages? (3) does the events cause crisis or opportunity? This work discusses game theory developed by John Von Neumman and Oskar Morgenstern on the strategic management to combine with the theory of risk management to see any opportunity that a business can turn the risk into opportunity. The game theory includes: (1) how to be insight in the chaos (2) decision model in the uncertainty (3) cost-effectiveness analysis in the risk control. Four risk management strategies are adopted as (1) risk avoidance (2) risk mitigation (3) risk transfer and (4) risk reduction are assessed in different scenarios by using the game theory. It is a new logic regarding to implement the strategic management methodology in risk management which intend to help senior managers to use their business habit which include concerns of the risk in their decision making process. And the paper will provide some ideas of planning and implementation of the risk management strategies in the decision making process. View full abstract»

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    The enterprise backbone network: making sense of current and emerging technologies

    Bumblis, J.R.
    Enterprise Networking Mini-Conference, 1997. ENM-97. In conjunction with the ICC-97., First IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ENM.1997.596868
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 27 - 36

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Although many network battles are won by information systems (IS) engineers/managers and their favorite networking vendor, the war rages on. As outlined by Dr. Peter Newman (see IEEE 21st Conference on Local Computer Networks, 1996) the world can be divided into two major networking group. The network socialists and the network capitalists. According to Dr. Newman, the network socialists want shared bandwidth, connectionless network services, and work toward the proliferation of the Internet. In contrast, the network capitalists strives for fixed bandwidth, connection oriented network services, and wishes to put ATM in every coffee pot and toaster on the planet. Whether you are a network socialist or a network capitalist, the need to evaluate and understand the impact and ramifications of choosing and deploying a corporate backbone is an absolute requirement if the goal is to successfully support the enterprise computing and information needs. This paper outlines the more popular network technologies, both currently available and technologies that will be emerging in the not to distant future. These technologies include: FDDI, Switched 10BASE-T Ethernet, Switched 100BASE-T Ethernet, IsoEthernet, Fibre Channel, ATM, and Gigabit Ethernet View full abstract»

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    Notice of Retraction
    The revival and boom of a colonial city: The history of modern town planning in Hong Kong (1945–1997)

    Zou Han ; Li Baihao
    Electric Technology and Civil Engineering (ICETCE), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICETCE.2011.5776363
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1766 - 1769

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Notice of Retraction

    After careful and considered review of the content of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles.

    We hereby retract the content of this paper. Reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper.

    The presenting author of this paper has the option to appeal this decision by contacting TPII@ieee.org.

    This paper reviews the history of modern town planning in Hong Kong during 1945-1997. Hong Kong revived the urban construction after World War II and implemented the town planning under the colonial policy before she came back to Mainland China. In this period, the town planning system had been set up, the town planning legal basis had been laid down and the town planning authority had been organized to work on a series of town planning activities. The historical phases can be sorted out by indicating and analyzing the significant town planning events such as the clearance of slums and public housing, the planning and construction of new town in New Territories, the urban renewal programmes in old urban areas, the seafront reclamation, the airport and ports planning, etc. Then the characteristics of modern town planning in Hong Kong can be inferred. View full abstract»

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    Designers: the browser war casualties

    Phillips, B.
    Computer

    Volume: 31 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1109/2.722269
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 14 - 16, 21
    Cited by:  Patents (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    As Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator battle for dominance of the browser market, each company is adopting different versions of some important technologies: Microsoft and Netscape are innovating along paths that reflect their business goals. In the process though, Web site developers and even Web surfers are paying a price. Microsoft and Netscape disagree over several key Web standards under consideration by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), including several key aspects of Dynamic HTML (DHTML). Internet Explorer and Navigator will thus use formats that differ in some key ways. Therefore, to develop a Web site that can work with both browsers, a designer must create either two sets of sites, which costs additional time and money, or one site that satisfies the elements that both browsers have in common, which limits the capability of the site to take full advantage of each browser's strengths. This, in turn, has limited DHTML usage to a small subset of the capabilities that would be possible if there was no standards conflict. In addition, the disparity in browser features makes hand coding HTML in text editors difficult, especially when working with HTML 4.0's new features, such as DHTML and cascading style sheets (CSS). This will make life difficult for tool vendors whose business hinges on visually authoring pages that work well with both Internet Explorer and Navigator View full abstract»

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    Talent wars [Workforce Migration]

    Collins, L.
    Engineering & Technology

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 5
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 34 - 36

    IET Journals & Magazines

    THERE IS A GLOBAL war being waged for talent. It pits capital against labour, the developed world against the developing, and south against north. But where is this war being fought? Who are its foot-soldiers? And is it right to call it a war at all? One of the battlefronts is lined with Chinese graduates seeking overseas experience. Another features Indian students on their way to MIT or Indian technologists leaving Silicon Valley to start businesses back home. Then there are the eastern Europeans scouring western Europe for opportunities, as well as the recession-hit youth of Ireland, marching once again along the routes their parents took in the 1980s. All are looking for the best places to develop their experience and apply their skills, some with a mind to make a life there, others with every intention of eventually taking their newly wrought skills home. View full abstract»

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    Is digital inclusion a good thing? How can we make sure it is?

    Stallman, R.
    Innovations for Digital Inclusions, 2009. K-IDI 2009. ITU-T Kaleidoscope:

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Activities directed at ldquoincludingrdquo more people in the use of digital technology are predicated on the assumption that such inclusion is invariably a good thing. It appears so, when judged solely by immediate practical convenience. However, if we also judge in terms of human rights, whether digital inclusion is good or bad depends on what kind of digital world we are to be included in. If we wish to work towards digital inclusion as a goal, it behooves us to make sure it is the good kind. View full abstract»

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