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    A history of transatlantic cables

    Schwartz, M. ; Hayes, J.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 46 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2008.4623705
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 42 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Exactly 150 years ago, August 1858, the world witnessed a historic event in the history of telecommunications: the successful transmission of telegraph messages across the Atlantic Ocean. Although the transatlantic cable carrying these messages failed after a few weeks of operation, and it wasn't until 1866 that permanent transatlantic telegraph cable transmission became possible, the 1858 transmissions were heralded worldwide as a major achievement, introducing a new Age of Information. To commemorate this literally earth-shaking accomplishment 150 years ago, the History Column this month presents an article entitled ?A History of Transatlantic Cables? by Jerry Hayes of Concordia University, Canada, a member of the ComSoc History Committee. Interestingly, it took almost another 100 years until the first transatlantic telephone cable, TAT-1, was successfully launched. Jerry covers this epoch-making event in his article as well, in addition to the various undersea telephone cables that followed in the years after. So we are actually commemorating two historic events in this column: the first successful transmission of telegraph data across the ocean, and the first successful transatlantic cable transmission of voice. We commend the article following to you.Special Notice: The ComSoc History Committee is sponsoring a special History Session at the forthcoming IEEE GLOBECOM 2008 in New Orleans. This session, the first of its kind, and coorganized by History Committee members Jacob Baal-Schem of Israel and Mischa Schwartz, will take place Tuesday, December 2, from 1:30-6 p.m. It will consist of three parts: a keynote address on the history of OFDM by Steve Weinstein, a past President of ComSoc and a pioneer in the field of OFDM; four reviewed papers covering a variety of topics on the history of communications; and a panel discussion on the topic "Who Invented Radio?" The panelists, a distinguished group of authorities and historians in the field, drawn from the Uni View full abstract»

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    Active element in submerged repeaters: first quarter century

    Holmes, M.F.
    Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the Institution of

    Volume: 123 , Issue: 10 , Part: R
    DOI: 10.1049/piee.1976.0207
    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 1081 - 1112
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The review links the development of British submarine telephony during the last 25 years with the development and production of the active elements, thermionic valves and silicon planar transistors, in the submerged repeater amplifiers. These devices have played a major role in determining the performance, capacity and reliability of all submarine transmission systems. While concentrating on the work of the British Post Office Research Department the complementary role played by industry, and by Standard Telephones and Cables in particular, is recognised. British effort has been encouraged and stimulated throughout by the other major submarine development organisation, Bell Telephone Laboratories in the USA. The development in France of active devices for submarine systems has also been noteworthy. The work on oxide-cathode thermionic valves between 1950 and 1965 is mainly the history of a research and development effort aimed at improving the electrical reliability of the devices. Only in the latter part of the period was any major attempt made to improve valve performance and, consequently, the capacity of submarine systems. The use of systems incorporating valves extends from shallow-water cables around the UK to transatlantic and trans-Pacific cables which have completed a transmission link more than half-way round the world. The target of a 20-year system life, free from failures arising from the decay or collapse in the performance of the valves, has already been achieved for one of the early systems. One of the major links (CANTAT-1, between the UK and Canada) has now passed the 14th year of service satisfactorily. The era of silicon planar transistors, replacing the thermionic valves in submarine systems, started in 1961 and is still continuing. The twin targets of improving performance and reliability were equally stressed during the whole period from 1961 to date. The success in improving device performance is demonstrated by the capacity of the early tran- - sistorised systems, 640 (3kHz) circuits, almost double that achieved in the last valve system. Transistor performance has improved still further to provide 1840 circuits in the last transatlantic cable (CANTAT-2, laid in 1974) and later device developments will more than double this figure. The importance of this achievement rests, however, on the maintenance of ultrahigh reliability as an essential feature of performance improvement. An advanced technique for reliability assessment has enabled predictions of less than one active-element failure in a system life of 20 years to be made. It has only been possible to reach this level of reliability by careful design of the transistor and of the processes by which it is made, supplemented by a rigorous system of quality control imposed on materials, piece parts and assembly techniques. Experience of the first eight years of operational use on the sea bed is supporting the reliability predictions. For the future, it is believed that the foundations necessary to support the British effort in this important area of international communications have been well laid. Nevertheless, technical innovation is needed more than ever before to maintain a competitive position in the face of increasing overseas interest in the art of submarine telephony. View full abstract»

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    A transatlantic telephone cable

    Kelly, Mervin J. ; Radley, Sir Gordon ; Gilman, G. W. ; Halsey, R. J.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part I: Communication and Electronics, Transactions of the

    Volume: 74 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TCE.1955.6372255
    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 124 - 139

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Plans have been announced for the laying of the first transatlantic telephone cable system to link the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, with a target date for completion in 1956. This paper traces the history of communication across the North Atlantic and discusses the inadequacy of radio circuits to satisfy the requirements of traffic growth. A general description is then given of the cable system which will provide 36 telephone circuits across the Atlantic and 60 between Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The project has been made possible only by the development of submerged repeaters containing long-life vacuum tubes and other components, and these are described, as well as the American experimental work that led to the development of a flexible repeater housing which could be laid at depths of 2 miles without risk of damage to itself or to the cable. Fifty-two of these repeaters will be used in each of two 1-way cables, nearly 2,000 nautical miles long, connecting Newfoundland with Scotland. Newfoundland will be connected to Nova Scotia by a single cable containing 16 2-way repeaters of British design evolved from that which has been extensively used for schemes in home waters. View full abstract»

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    A transatlantic telephone cable

    Kelly, Mervin J. ; Radley, Gordon ; Gilman, G.W. ; Halsey, R.J.
    Proceedings of the IEE - Part B: Radio and Electronic Engineering

    Volume: 102 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1049/pi-b-1.1955.0021
    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 117 - 130

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Plans have been announced for the laying of the first transatlantic telephone cable system to link the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States, with a target date for completion in 1956. The paper traces the history of communication across the North Atlantic and discusses the inadequacy of radio circuits to satisfy the requirements of traffic growth. A general description is then given of the cable system, which will provide 36 telephone circuits across the Atlantic and 60 between Newfoundland and Novia Scotia. The project has been made possible only by the development of submerged repeaters containing long-life valves and other components, and these are described, as is the American experimental work which led to the development of a flexible repeater housing which could be laid at depths of 2 miles without risk of damage to itself or to the cable. Fifty-two of these repeaters will be used in each of two one-way cables nearly 2000 nautical miles long, connecting Newfoundland with Scotland. Newfoundland will be connected to Nova Scotia by a single cable containing 16 both-way repeaters of British design evolved from those which have been extensively used for schemes in home waters. View full abstract»

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    Reliability of semiconductor devices for submarine-cable systems

    Miller, L.E.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 62 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1974.9411
    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 230 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The Bell System initiated development of semiconductor devices for use in broad-band repeatered coaxial submarine-cable telephone systems in the early 1960's. Development of such devices has continued at varying levels of activity to this date. Now, over a decade later, more than five years of successful operational life have elapsed on the first installed system; one transatlantic system is in operation and several more of equal or greater length are in various stages of construction. Laboratory-like life validation tests have been conducted on all the devices for use in these systems, and up to seven years of history have elapsed on groups of 100 devices representative of the five varieties used in the first system. No failures have been observed either in service or in life validation tests, thereby confirming a FIT rate of better than five. Moreover, variables data for the representative samples aged for seven years indicate that the confirmed FIT rate may be extremely conservative. Silicon diodes aged below breakdown are more stable than the life-test system designed to evaluate their reliability. Silicon diodes aged in breakdown show a linear drift in leakage current which is so small that it is not detectable except with an ultrasensitive test system. Germanium transistors evaluated over this same period show that the change in current gain they exhibit will be substantially less than the goal established for them at the inception of development. Silicon transistors being developed for a new higher capacity system show promise of exceeding the stability of the more extensively evaluated germanium devices. These results have broader implications than their relevance to submarine-cable system performance since they indicate that the reliability which has long been considered to be inherent in semiconductor devices not only has been demonstrably achieved in quantitative terms but can be considered to be designable for future system applications. View full abstract»

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    History of undersea telecommunications technology

    Rapp, R.J. ; Spalding, M.A.
    OCEANS 2008

    DOI: 10.1109/OCEANS.2008.5152105
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. In this paper we review the history and the evolution of the technologies enabling the design, manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of undersea telecommunication cables deployed around the globe. We highlight pivotal historical events, and also focus on developments in cable transmission media and characteristics, materials for robust handling and optimal subsea performance, and advancements in ships, cable handling equipment, and marine tools used to deploy and maintain these systems. We trace this evolution from the first telegraph cables installed in Europe in the 1840s-1850s; to the first transatlantic cables installed in the 1850s-1860s carrying 2 to 8 words per minute; through TAT-1, installed in 1956, which carried 36 voice circuits. The breakthrough of fiberoptics in transmission signal technology led to the first transoceanic optical undersea cable in 1988, TAT-8, which carried 0.5 Gb/s, the equivalent of 8000 voice channels. The technological development of optical amplification, which enabled a signal rate-independent transmission medium, was implemented in the mid-1990s, first in TPC-5 across the Pacific and later in TAT-12/13, across the Atlantic. These were the first fiber optic cable systems employing Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA); they operated at 5 Gb/s with two STM-64 channels on each fiber pair. Further technological advancements allowed the application of Dense Wave-Division Multiplexing (DWDM), a transmission technique initially implemented in shorter terrestrial fiberoptic systems, to be deployed over the long distances required for undersea telecommunications. These multichannel systems utilize many closely-spaced wavelengths transmitted and amplified on a single optical fiber, increasing capacities by 100-fold, allowing for multi-Terabit capacity systems. We describe how technical challenges have evolved and have been managed on ultra-long haul systems. We also discuss the evolution of marine to- ols used to deploy and maintain undersea systems. Finally, we describe how these undersea telecommunication technologies have been adapted to initiatives in scientific observation, oil and gas platform connectively, and harbor security. View full abstract»

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    Liberte! Egalite! Telegraphie! The French Cable Station in Orleans, Massachusetts

    Stephan, K.D.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 38 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/74.544399
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 30 - 37

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Sometimes factors-such as government regulations, personal preferences, or even national pride-can intervene to preserve an outmoded technology long after technical considerations would dictate its demise. The town of Orleans, nestled in the elbow of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, harbors one such product of benign neglect: the French Cable Station Museum. This article describes the history of the telegraph-cable connections between France and the Cape, dating back to 1879, only thirteen years after the first permanently successful transatlantic cable was laid. French patriotism influenced the routing and operation of the cables as much as economics or engineering. The submarine telegraph cable was an interesting propagation medium in its own right. Even after intercontinental radio communications became practical, some of the best minds in the communications industry applied themselves to the problem of maximizing cable-transmission rates, with mixed results. I review two significant technical advances in submarine-cable technology that occurred between 1900 and 1930. Finally, I conduct an armchair tour of the French Cable Station Museum as it is today, one of the few communications museums in the country which preserves historic operating equipment at its original site View full abstract»

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    The first Atlantic telegraphs

    Bowers, Brian
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 88 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1109/5.871324
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 1131 - 1133

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Outlines the history of the development and laying of the first transatlantic telegraph cables, from County Kerry on the West Coast of Ireland to Heart's Content in Newfoundland (from which it was relatively easy to take a telegraph line to New York). Problems included waterproofing, signal attenuation, the breaking of the cable during laying, and the carrying of so much cable on ships. The first cable was laid in 1858, but it failed within a few weeks. The successful cable was laid in 1866. View full abstract»

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    About the speaker - Nigel Linge, Pauline Webb

    Linge, Nigel ; Webb, Pauline
    Story of Transatlantic Communications, 2008. Institution of Engineering and Technology Seminar on the

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 28

    IET Conference Publications

    Account of the life and work of John Pender, relating to the history of the transatlantic telegraph cable and the history of global telecommunications. View full abstract»

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    John Pender and Manchester’s contribution


    Story of Transatlantic Communications, 2008. Institution of Engineering and Technology Seminar on the

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 27

    IET Conference Publications

    Account of the life and work of John Pender, relating to the history of the transatlantic telegraph cable and the history of global telecommunications. View full abstract»

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    The transatlantic cable-an Irish perspective

    Connolly, C.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 90 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2002.1002531
    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 623 - 625

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    One of the papers presented at the IEEE History of Telecommunications Conference in Newfoundland last July looked at the first transatlantic cables from an Irish perspective. The author has studied the local impact of the cable as a relatively poor and isolated community suddenly found itself at a hub in the worldwide telecommunications network. The paper describes the Valentia community, the cable station staff, and the cable stations at Valentia, Waterville, and Ballinskelligs View full abstract»

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    About the speaker - Robert Martin-Royle

    Martin-Royle, Robert
    Story of Transatlantic Communications, 2008. Institution of Engineering and Technology Seminar on the

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2

    IET Conference Publications

    Overview of the history of transatlantic communications, from the first telegraph cable to satellite communications, with a timeline showing major events from 1600-2000. View full abstract»

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    Solitons in communications

    Arnold, J.M.
    Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal

    Volume: 8 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1049/ecej:19960206
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 88 - 96

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Communications of tens of gigabits per second of data over distances of many thousands of kilometres using optical-fibre solitons has been predicted and demonstrated experimentally. This paper reviews the history, physics and engineering of optical-fibre solitons and assesses the problems encountered in realising the concept for high-capacity transatlantic telecommunications. The possibilities of communications inherent in the transmission of pulses which do not suffer dispersion were recognised almost immediately after the mathematical clarification of the soliton, and in 1973 a proposal was initiated by Hasegawa and Tappert for the use of this phenomenon for high-capacity digital communications along optical fibres. The technical issues involved in a proper understanding of this idea are discussed and the impact on technology that has followed the proposal is considered View full abstract»

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    Representations of transatlantic telegraphy

    Hempstead, C.A.
    Engineering Science and Education Journal

    Volume: 4 , Issue: 6
    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): S17 - S25

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The successful laying of a telegraph cable across the Atlantic in 1866 had a major impact on Victorian society. An important part of the process of habituating the public to the new technology was the representation of submarine telegraphy in books and magazines, such as Punch and the Illustrated London News, aimed at an educated, disinterested audience. This paper examines some typical representations in prose, poetry, and pictures View full abstract»

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    Chairman’ introduction and overview

    Martin-Royle, Robert
    Story of Transatlantic Communications, 2008. Institution of Engineering and Technology Seminar on the

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 3 - 10

    IET Conference Publications

    Welcome to today’s Seminar where we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the completion of first cable across the Atlantic Ocean which provided in August 1858, for the first time, telegraphic communications between North America and the UK. As well as hearing about this major event we will review the subsequent evolution of telecommunications between these countries. View full abstract»

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    HF telecommunications, what happened between Poldhu and Telstar

    Hawkins, P.M.
    HF Radio Systems and Techniques, 2003. Ninth International Conference on (Conf. Publ. No. 493)

    DOI: 10.1049/cp:20030419
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IET Conference Publications

    In the last two years two important anniversaries of radio communications have been celebrated. The first was in December 2001 commemorating the 100th. anniversary of Marconi's transatlantic transmission. The second in 2002 was the 40th. anniversary of transatlantic satellite communication via Telstar. With respect to HF telecommunications the first event was a beginning whereas the latter was considered to have sounded its death knell. Just as in 1901, when bridging the Atlantic ocean was seen as the goal for the fledgling technology this expanse of water has remained a bench mark throughout the 20th. century for the development of long distance communication systems, whether by cable, by direct radio, or via satellite. As we took to the future of HF radio systems and techniques it is well to consider the technical achievements, in radio telecommunications, that were made during the almost forgotten 61 years of the last century. It should be noted that the development of international telecommunications, of which HF radio has played a major part during the period under consideration, has been driven by commerce and global politics. This paper, however, is concerned mainly with the technical aspects of HF radio telecommunications. View full abstract»

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    Insights into the landing of the 1858 cable

    de Cogan, Donard
    Story of Transatlantic Communications, 2008. Institution of Engineering and Technology Seminar on the

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 37 - 46

    IET Conference Publications

    The cliché “the victors get to write the history” could probably be aptly attributed to Cyrus Field. There is hardly a history on the subject of the trans-Atlantic cables that does not put him at centre stage and not without justification. He was an excellent self publicist and the “History of the Atlantic Telegraph” first published by his brother in 1866 certainly strengthened his claim. However, just like the recent Hollywood movie, “U571” the popular history ignores the fact that the scientific and technological efforts were due to the contributions of many others who should have a share in an achievement which completely changed the pace of world communications. This paper attempts to re-examine some of the facts using a range of alternative sources. The Cooke drawings in the IET Archives are one such source. Another is Capt. Brine’s histori-graphical map of the place and time which is in the BM Library. It is sufficiently accurate that a correlation between its placement of ships and Cooke’s drawings of the same can be achieved. Finally, there is a little known document which is held at the Friends Historical Library in Dublin. It was first drawn to my attention by Brendan Scaife, whom some may remember organised the very successful PG-S7 weekend meeting in Dublin in 1987. I am extremely grateful to him for sending me extracts from the “Diary of John Lecky” who died c. 1928. Lecky was the only son of the manager of the quarry at Valentia island and although his memory appears to be somewhat inaccurate in places, he nevertheless gives a unique child’s eye-witness account of the events. It is proposed to use a major portion of these extracts as the back-drop to this alternative yew of the 1857/58 cable expeditions. The paper will conclude with a brief assessment of subsequent histories of some of the dramatis personae. View full abstract»

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    Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Oliver E. Buckley [Scanning Our Past]

    Brittain, J.E.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 97 , Issue: 8
    DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2009.2022898
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1543 - 1546

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In 1954, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) selected Oliver E. Buckley as the recipient of the Edison medal. He was cited "for his contributions to the science and art which have made possible a transatlantic telephone cable." The citation also noted his "wise leadership of a great industrial laboratory" and his "outstanding services to the government of his country". Buckley spent most of his professional career with the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T). Early in his career, he was an active participant in laboratory research on vacuum-tube amplifiers and was the inventor of an ionization manometer. In his later years, he became a research manager and served for a decade as president of the Bell Telephone Laboratories. View full abstract»

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    A radioscientist's reaction to Marconi's first transatlantic wireless experiment-revisited

    Belrose, J.S.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2001. IEEE

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/APS.2001.958784
    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 22 - 25 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    On 12 December 1901 signals from a high power spark transmitter located at Poldhu, Cornwall, were reported to have been heard by Marconi and his assistant George Kemp at a receiving site on Signal Hill near St. John's, Newfoundland. For this reception experiment, Marconi used a kite supported wire aerial, an untuned receiver, a detector of uncertain performance and a telephone receiver. The signals, if heard, would have traveled a distance of 3500 kilometres. Even at the time of the experiment there were those who said, indeed there are some who still say, that he misled himself and the world into believing that atmospheric noise crackling was in fact the Morse code letter "S". A little later, in February 1902, when Marconi was returning to North America on the SS Philadelphia, using a tuned ship-borne antenna, he received signals using his filings coherer from the same sender up to distances of 1120 km by day and 2500 km by night. Even these distances are rather remarkable considering the receiving apparatus he used. This paper revisits that first transatlantic experiment and concludes that it is difficult to believe that signals could have been heard on Signal Hill. View full abstract»

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    Telstar - the birth of transatlantic satellite communications

    Prouse, D.
    Story of Transatlantic Communications, 2008. Institution of Engineering and Technology Seminar on the

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 85

    IET Conference Publications

    Science-fiction writers and visionaries dreamt of communicating via satellites from the 1920s to the end of the 1950s. Telstar turned those dreams into reality when this small (less than 1 m diameter) satellite was successfully launched into Earth-orbit on 10th July 1962 and it simultaneously caught the imagination of television audiences on both sides of the Atlantic. In keeping with the celebratory theme of the seminar, this paper looks at the technologies and personalities that made satellite communications possible via the Telstar project from an historical perspective. What was driving these people forward? What was Project Telstar looking to achieve? Why wasn't it sufficient for transatlantic communications to rely upon the sub-sea cable technology that had developed so immensely over the previous 100 years? What lessons were learned from the project and how have they been applied since? These are some of the questions that will be addressed by firstly taking a brief look at what happened over a 2-week period in July 1962 which was arguably the most intense period of internationally co-operative experimentation known to mankind, with many world firsts attributable to Project Telstar and all the many people involved. The story then goes back over the important historical steps leading to Telstar, before moving on to an overview of the technical characteristics and related issues and finishing up with a very brief indication of the role of satellites today, illustrating throughout what a marvellous source of inspiration Telstar has been and will continue to be for future generations. View full abstract»

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    The French Atlantic cable of 1869: settled technology and unsettled relationships

    Cookson, G.
    Engineering Science and Education Journal

    Volume: 8 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1049/esej:19990308
    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 135 - 141

    IET Journals & Magazines

    By the end of 1866, when the first transatlantic telegraph had been successfully brought into operation, it was widely believed that the technological problems which had surrounded the design, laying and working of long undersea cables had been settled. Yet a closer scrutiny of events during the planning, laying and subsequent working of the next major cable, which linked France with the United States in 1869, shows that the reassuring image of confidence presented to investors was not the full picture. Broad agreement had been reached about the cable's structure and its electrical management, but other issues, especially ones relating to roles and relationships of the electrical engineers involved, were still not clearly resolved View full abstract»

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    Reliability of Fiber Optic connectors

    Jones, R.T. ; Thiraviam, A.
    OCEANS 2010

    DOI: 10.1109/OCEANS.2010.5664452
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Fiber Optic equipment including wet-mate optical connectors is a key part of today's subsea infrastructure in oceanographic, defense and oil and gas applications. For secure communications, high bandwidth applications and large step-out distances fiber optic technology is superior to electrical data transfer. Despite these significant advantages, perceived reliability of fiber optic technology especially subsea wet-mate connectors has been heavily debated in the industry. This paper examines some of the common industry concerns over fiber optics and the recent advancements in the industry that have improved the robustness and reliability of subsea fiber optic interconnections. The paper also looks at accelerated aging tests and field data that demonstrate repeatable performance of subsea connectors over hundreds of mate cycles. This paper will also present information concerning the robustness of fiber optic interconnects to handle subsea interventions and installations, highlighting recent advancements in the connector designs to allow easy and repeatable mating and demating of these devices in the harsh subsea environments. Finally, another impediment to common use of the fiber-optic connectors is the perceived technology readiness with successful deployment history. The paper dissects the relevant reliability data from the use of these connectors over the past 15 years and uncovers important inferences on the reliability of subsea fiber optic interconnects. View full abstract»

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    Transoceanic communication by means of satellites [classic paper]

    Pierce, J.R. ; Kompfner, R.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 85 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/5.598422
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1011 - 1019

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The existence of artificial Earth satellites and of very low-noise maser amplifiers makes microwave links using spherical satellites as passive reflectors seem an interesting alternative to cable or tropospheric scatter for broadband transatlantic communication. A satellite in a polar orbit at a height of 3000 mi would be mutually visible from Newfoundland and the Hebrides for 22.0% of the time and would be over 7.25° above the horizon at each point for 17.7% of the time. Out of 24 such satellites, some would be mutually visible over 7.25° above the horizon 99% of the time. With 100-ft diameter spheres, 150-ft diameter antennas, and a noise temperature of 20°K, 85 kw at 2000 mc or 9.5 kw at 6000 mc could provide a 5-mc baseband with a 40-dB signal-to-noise ratio. The same system of satellites could be used to provide further communication at other frequencies or over other paths View full abstract»

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    Development of the distributed sea earth in transatlantic telegraphy

    de Cogan, D.
    Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education - Reviews, IEE Proceedings A

    Volume: 134 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1049/ip-a-1.1987.0084
    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 619 - 632

    IET Journals & Magazines

    A manuscript, dated 1889, was discovered among the unpublished papers of James Graves, the first Superintendent at the Valentia Island transatlantic cable station. It was intended to appear in the Institution's Journal but its publication was blocked by his employer on the grounds of commercial confidentiality. In the paper, Graves hoped to reinforce his claim to the invention of the sea earth. This technique of using the outer metal sheathing of a cable as the earth return connection was to become standard practise in submarine telegraphy, although, as a direct result of commercial secrecy, its development is still uncertain. In the paper, the basis of Graves's claim is examined in the light of available documentary evidence. The unpublished paper and the correspondence which is generated are presented together. A brief resum┬┐┬┐ of the financial conditions which led to the suppression of the paper is presented. View full abstract»

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    Transatlantic telephone cable

    Kelly, M. J. ; Radley, Sir Gordon ; Gilman, G. W. ; Halsey, R. J.
    Electrical Engineering

    Volume: 74 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/EE.1955.6439820
    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 192 - 197

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The history of communication across the North Atlantic is traced briefly. The basic design features of the cable and repeater are discussed as well as the Key West-Havana cables and British shallow-water experience before a description of the complete system is given. View full abstract»

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