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  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Highlights of antenna history

    Ramsay, J.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 19 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.1981.1090561
    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Highlights of antenna history

    Ramsay, J.
    Antennas and Propagation Society Newsletter, IEEE

    Volume: 23 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/MAP.1981.27575
    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 7 - 20

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A look at the major events in the development of antennas. View full abstract»

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    From Maxwell's equations to modern antenna marvels: From tiniest capsule antennas to largest space antennas

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.
    General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (URSI GASS), 2014 XXXIth URSI

    DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929136
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. An important fact from physics, namely, “accelerated charges radiate” along with the outcomes of Maxwell's equations, namely, “existence of EM waves traveling at the speed of light” forever have changed how we live, enjoy life and protect ourselves. Antennas are perhaps one of the most celebrated devices that have allowed controlled generation and reception of the EM waves. Antennas come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functionalities. In this talk two classes of antennas will be highlighted: (a) Miniaturized sized antennas in bio-telemetry applications and (b) Large reflector antennas for space applications. About quarter of century ago, the research community was advertising the concept of “global connectivity with anyone, at any time, in any place and with any amount of data”. This is now a reality. The next big concept is “bio-telemetry connecting patients to their doctors and hospitals at anytime, any location and with any amount of monitoring and diagnostics data”. History has shown that it typically takes about quarter of century to bring any out-to-the-box idea into the mainstream. We are in the midst of this new paradigm to becoming a reality. Advances over the past decade has enabled the use of smart capsules (electronic digestible pills) in biomedical applications helping in the treatment and diagnosis of various diseases (GI tract diseases, etc.). One of the paramount components in effective implementation of these devices is the development of unique ingestible capsule antenna designs for smart pill systems suitable for medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. This talk will provide an overview of advances in this area. Reflector antennas confine the electromagnetic energy over a distributed aperture into a focal plane or radiate the electromagnetic waves for communication or energy transfer. Reflector antennas are key components in diverse applications, - uch as radio astronomy, communications, remote sensing, radar, defense and medical devices. The second part of the presentation will start with a dramatic story of the use of parabolic reflectors in the ancient legend of Archimedes using them to focus the Sun's heat to burn attacking ships to modern giant spaceborne mesh and membrane reflector antennas for satellite communications, remote sensing and radio astronomy applications and the mutli-band shaped reflector antenna system for detecting the cosmic microwave background from the big bang and the early universe. Novel out-of-the-box concepts will also be highlighted. View full abstract»

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    A Critical Look at the Principles of Electromagnetic Time Reversal and its Consequences

    Galal Dyab, W.M. ; Kumar Sarkar, T. ; Garcia-Lamperez, A. ; Salazar-Palma, M. ; Lagunas, M.A.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 55 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2013.6735472
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 28 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A plethora of papers can be found in the scientific literature talking about time reversal. The term time reversal exists in the publications in a variety of different fields, such as ultrasonics, acoustics, wireless communications, electromagnetics, antennas and propagation, optics, physics, and philosophy. The term time reversal by itself sounds very interesting, and can provide many interpretations that are fascinating. However, due to a loose use of this term, it may in many cases lead to fallacious interpretations and conclusions if it is not interpreted in strict scientific terms. The main goal of this paper is to explain the appropriate definition of the term time reversal in electrical engineering in general, and in electromagnetics for wireless communications, to be specific. However, the motivation of the work presented in this paper is not to raise a controversy about time reversal and its related research. Rather, the aim of this work is to highlight the basic electrical engineering fundamentals that are necessary to study time reversal and to correctly define it, and to then accordingly interpret the results. Hence, the true and fallacious benefits of electromagnetic time reversal will be exposed. To serve this purpose, the paper is divided into two parts. First, a detailed literature review is presented. The true history of the term time reversal in electrical engineering is traced. In this part, most of the reported definitions of time reversal and its claimed capabilities are summarized. Some problems with the application of time reversal in electromagnetics are discussed, both theoretically and practically. All of the time-reversal papers talk about reciprocal networks, so the fact of the non-reciprocity of a single-antenna system in the time domain (the way we generally interpret it) is presented, to prove theoretically that there is a problem with how we interpret time reversal in electromagnetics. Finally, practical examples are shown, where tim- reversal is used in a wireless system and in an acoustic de-reverberation problem. The exact capabilities of time reversal in electrical engineering are exposed in those experiments. View full abstract»

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    Ground-Penetrating Radar technique to investigate historic eruptions on the Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy)

    Barone, P.M. ; Mattei, E. ; Proietti, C. ; Pettinelli, E. ; Ferrara, C. ; Lauro, S.E. ; Viccaro, M.
    Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar (IWAGPR), 2013 7th International Workshop on

    DOI: 10.1109/IWAGPR.2013.6601549
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the present paper we demonstrate the capability of different remote sensing techniques to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the lava flows on the Mt. Etna volcano. A preliminary approach to the sites, based on aerial photogrammetry, DEM, and topographic analyses, supports an intense GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey in several sites with different stratigraphical characteristics. The GPR measurements are performed with a bistatic system equipped with both 500 and 1000 MHz antennas. The use of different polarizations (TE, TM, Cross-Tx, and Cross-Rx) allow to extract subsurface features information having 3D geological structure reconstruction, electromagnetic nature information and properties of buried reflectors. This preliminary study highlights how the GPR technique provides, non-destructively, useful data to study the mechanisms of emplacement and the correlated hazard. Furthermore, if an inactive lava tubes can only be detected after the collapse of their vault, the use of GPR, on the contrary, could help to locate buried undamaged lava tubes and to measure their dimensions, providing useful structural information. Lava tubes, also, strongly influences the development of lava fields and the hazard connected with them, because they keep the lava thermally isolated causing a propagation longer than it would have done in an open channel. Additionally, the combined use of different remote sensing techniques can be useful to better estimate the thickness of the lava fields, giving precious data about the nature of the flow. Finally, the results highlight the importance of this combined approach to evaluate different physical parameters at the same time. View full abstract»

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    Bistatic FMCW SAR Signal Model and Imaging Approach

    Yue Liu ; Yun Kai Deng ; Wang, R. ; Loffeld, O.
    Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 49 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TAES.2013.6558035
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2017 - 2028
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The bistatic configuration of frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers considerable capabilities, reliability and flexibility in designing the compact size and low cost remote sensing systems. Furthermore, the spacial separation between transmitter and receiver avoids the antenna isolation problem. A signal model is proposed here to accurately formulate the bistatic slant range history in FMCW SAR configuration, where the motion during the long pulse duration is taken into account. Moreover, based on the preceding model, an optimization approach is presented to deal with the double square root (DSR) term, and thus an accurate FMCW bistatic point target reference spectrum (BPTRS) is derived. The proposed spectrum can not only address the signal characteristics of bistatic FMCW SAR, but also significantly simplify the bistatic FMCW SAR processing, which will really push the applications of FMCW SAR in the remote sensing field. Furthermore, based on the proposed signal model, the application of an improved range-Doppler algorithm (RDA) is further proposed to focus the bistatic FMCW SAR data. Simulation experiments are carried out to verify the accuracy of this novel formulation and highlight the performance of the proposed focusing approach. View full abstract»

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    The roadmap to broadband wireless communications - from kbps to Gbps

    Mujtaba, S.A.
    Networking and Communication Conference, 2004. INCC 2004. International

    DOI: 10.1109/INCC.2004.1366563
    Publication Year: 2004

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. The success of wireless communications for voice applications is evidenced by the sale of 400 million GSM cellular telephones every year world-wide. Wireless telephony has changed the way we live, work, and play. The emergence of the Internet in the last decade changed the way we share information with each other, be it via e-mail or through Web browsing. Today, all forms of information are available in digital formats, such as digital speech, digital audio, digital images, digital video, and of course digital text. The next revolution in our lives will be access to broadband digital content - anytime and anywhere. The underlying technology enabling this revolution would be seamless, ubiquitous broadband wireless communications. We present the fundamental mechanisms available to increase the data rate of wireless communication systems. These include bandwidth, constellation order, and multiple antennas. We step through the history of wireless communication systems (such as AMPS, IS-136/GSM, IS-95, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15, IEEE 802.16), and show how the various standards have steadily pushed the broadband frontier. We highlight the practical limitations associated with the various signaling techniques (such as TDMA, CDMA, OFDM etc.), and discuss tradeoffs for designing a wireless communication system operating at 1 gigabit per second. View full abstract»

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    Model and signal processing of bistatic frequencymodulated continuous wave synthetic aperture radar

    Liu, Y. ; Deng, Y.K. ; Wang, R. ; Loffeld, O. ; Wang, X.
    Radar, Sonar & Navigation, IET

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0276
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 472 - 482

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Bistatic frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mounts the radar transmitter and receiver on separate platforms, which offers considerable capabilities, reliability and flexibility in designing FMCW SAR missions. Moreover, the spatial separation achieves better isolation between transmission and reception channels compared with the monostatic FMCW SAR where the two separate dedicated antennas are fixed on one platform. In this study, a bistatic FMCW SAR signal model is proposed to formulate the bistatic slant range history in bistatic FMCW configuration. Based on the preceding model, an approach is presented to deal with the double-square-root (DSR) term, and thus an accurate FMCW bistatic point target reference spectrum (BPTRS) is derived. Besides accurately addressing the signal characteristics of bistatic FMCW SAR, the proposed spectrum also significantly simplifies the signal processing of bistatic FMCW SAR, which will really push the applications of bistatic FMCW SAR in remote sensing fields. Furthermore, based on the proposed BPTRS, an extended inverse chirp-Z transform (EICZT) algorithm is proposed to process the bistatic FMCW SAR data by introducing a perturbation function to deal with the range-variance of second- and third-order range-azimuth coupling terms. Two simulation experiments are carried out to verify the accuracy of this novel formulation and highlight the performance of the proposed focusing approach. View full abstract»

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    Inflatable space structures

    Thomas, M.
    Potentials, IEEE

    Volume: 11 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/45.207143
    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 29 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The importance of inflatable structures for activities in space is discussed, and their history is described. The changes in structural principles when such structures are used in a zero-gravity environment are highlighted. Technical issues arising for large precision structures, regarding environment, surface accuracy, analysis and electrical properties are considered. A typical large inflatable antenna structure is examined.<> View full abstract»

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    The Heinrich Hertz wireless experiments at Karlsruhe in the view of modern communication

    Cichon, D.J. ; Wiesbeck, W.
    100 Years of Radio., Proceedings of the 1995 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1049/cp:19950782
    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IET Conference Publications

    Highlights the contributions of Heinrich Hertz by his experiments, carried out in Karlsruhe, Germany, in the years 1885 to 1889, to the first radio communication experiments. Heinrich Hertz developed for the first time a complete pulsed radar, an indoor communication link and a material test set, all in one. The basic system components had been the spark gap oscillator, the dipole antennas for transmit and receive, a nearly parabolic reflector, a polarisation grid, a field strength indicator and several propagation obstacles like wax prism. In the years of 1887-88 his experiments verified the predicted propagation of electromagnetic waves and in addition wave polarisation, reflection, diffraction and refraction. A look at Heinrich Hertz's experiments, his equipment and his results is given. The influence on Marconi's research is discussed. A numerical simulation of the indoor wave propagation, in the original Heinrich Hertz experiments environment, which survived the wars, is intended to demonstrate the problems, but also the real situation this scientist was confronted with View full abstract»

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    Lessons learned from HUT-2D L-band airborne demonstrator

    Kainulainen, J. ; Rautiainen, K. ; Hallikainen, M.
    Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2011 IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/IGARSS.2011.6049975
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3499 - 3502

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper discusses the development of the airborne synthetic aperture radiometer HUT-2D of Aalto University. We present the life cycle of the project starting from its initiation, highlighting the main milestones and achievements in hardware development, interferometric algorithm validation, and finally in airborne campaigns. We point out the most important lessons learned from especially the hardware development history and discuss the overall performance and usability of the instrument. With these lessons learned we sketch an easy-to-implement, cost-effective redesign of the HUT-2D instrument. This redesign focuses on issues that would produce improvements, which are the most beneficiary in terms of the instrument's ability to make scientific measurements. View full abstract»

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    A chronology of developments of wireless communication and electronics from 1831-1920

    Sarkar, T.K. ; Salazar-Palma, M. ; Sengupta, D.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2001. IEEE

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/APS.2001.958779
    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2 - 5 vol.1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The presents a chronology of the developments of wireless communication and supporting electronics. Often, the invention of radio is delegated to one or two persons, the names of whom vary from country to country, depending on the country of origin of the authors. The aim of this paper is to illustrate that simultaneous development was going on all over the world and that each invention provided a solution to the portion of the puzzle. We only highlight some of the crucial events from 1831 up to 1920 without further details. View full abstract»

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    20st century engineer-entrepreneur

    Arora, V.K. ; Faraone, L.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 45 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2003.1252815
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 106 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The emerging facts from successful organizations, including universities, indicate that the real source of power in a knowledge-based economy is in combining technical prowess with entrepreneurship. This paper first highlights missing links in the aptitude and attitude of an engineer in combining technical knowledge with sound decision-making and effective entrepreneurship. Second, it discusses the gaps in traditional college education, and their remedies through outcome-based curricula. Third, it presents the distinction between leadership and management with reference to new models espoused in the theory of constraints (TOC). Fourth, it outlines the skills needed for the professional development of an individual to transform him or her from a traditional quantitative/verbal thinker to a future-oriented visionary by redirecting the whole-brain thinking. Finally, critical success factors in the development of an effective and efficient knowledge worker for the 21st century is enumerated. View full abstract»

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    A comparison of FD-TD and the method of moments to model electrically small antennas

    Monk, A.D. ; Rayner, M. ; Olver, A.D.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1995. AP-S. Digest

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/APS.1995.530101
    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 644 - 647 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With the widespread availability of relatively powerful computing resources, accurate numerical modelling of electrically small (<5/spl lambda/) antennas has become a useful and viable option. Two of the more widely used methods are the finite difference time domain (FD-TD) method and the method of moments. This paper compares these two methods, specifically comparing the results obtained from the methods for typical cases, highlighting the aspects of the methods which need to be treated with care to obtain accurate results, and comparing the numerical efficiencies. View full abstract»

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    The John T. Bolljahn Memorial Award lecture: A bit of personal history

    Silver, Samuel
    Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 20 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1972.1140194
    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 233 - 238

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Prepares a paper on the highlights of author's contributions to the fields of antennas and propagation for presentation at the joint session of the Professional Group on Antennas and Propagation and US National Committee of International Scientific Radio Union (URSI) View full abstract»

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    Sir J.C. Bose and radio science

    Sen, A.K.
    Microwave Symposium Digest, 1997., IEEE MTT-S International

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602854
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 557 - 560 vol.2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Sir J.C. Bose's pioneering works in quasi-optic millimeter wave research in Calcutta, India about 100 years back during 1890s are highlighted. He developed an elegant millimeter wave spark transmitter, self recovering coherer detector, wire grid polariser, cylindrical diffraction grating, dielectric lens and prism, rectangular waveguide, horn antenna and microwave absorber, for the studies of reflection, refraction, absorption and polarisation of millimeter waves and its application to wireless remote control for firing a gun. All these pioneering activities indicate that he was well ahead of his time and prompted us to call him the father of Radio Science. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Guglielmo Marconi: Some New Documents Covering the Years 1894–1896 [Historical Corner]

    Fabbri, M. ; Pelosi, G.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 55 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2013.6529378
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 291 - 302

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Some Highlights in the Engineering of the British Commercial Independent Television Service

    Bevan, P.A.T.
    Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: BC-14 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TBC.1968.265927
    Publication Year: 1968 , Page(s): 107 - 125

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The history of the creation of a new national TV network for the United Kingdom is given. From the start, the United States has been accustomed to free enterprise radio and television services (not forgetting the FCC). But in the United Kingdom and Europe, however, broadcasting was strictly state-controlled and no advertising was permitted. Then, in 1954, a British Conservative government, against severe opposition from the Left, introduced a new "Television Act" which permitted a Public Authority¿the Independent Television Authority (ITA)¿to provide a second television service for the whole of the country by granting a franchise to a number of separate, financially self-supporting program companies, each with their own technical facilities and staff. These companies were to supply programs that they and the ITA considered to be of national merit to various regions of the country and to broadcast such programs over a comprehensive lines network and a series of transmitting stations sited, built, and operated by the ITA itself. This was a unique combination of private initiative and public control. In contrast to a centralized organization such as the BBC, the ITA established its service as a federal system. The considerable influence of this policy on the way the new network should be engineered and the technical developments that followed are described. In particular, it is interesting to note the spectacular rate of increase in the number of viewers receiving the ITA programs as the new service was developed. View full abstract»

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    Emerging wireless technologies in e-health trends, challenges, and framework design issues

    El Khaddar, M.A. ; Harroud, H. ; Boulmalf, M. ; Elkoutbi, M. ; Habbani, A.
    Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), 2012 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICMCS.2012.6320276
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 440 - 445
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In healthcare the importance of obtaining the right information, at the right time, irrespective of time and location dependency is very critical. Healthcare personnel need to access real-time medical data such as patient clinical histories, laboratory results, treatments, chronic diseases, medication, and insurance information. Therefore, healthcare is the most apt domain for the application of ubiquitous technologies. Ubiquitous healthcare aims at creating an environment where healthcare is available to everyone, everywhere through the use of technologies that would not only be pervasive but also be assimilated flawlessly in the daily lives. With large-scale wireless networks and mobile computing solutions, such as cellular 3G, Wi-Fi mesh, WiMAX, Bluetooth, RFID, and Wireless Sensor Networks, healthcare personnel can tap into vital information anywhere and at any time within the healthcare networks. Ubiquitous healthcare, although promising, there are myriad challenges associated with realizing its vision. This paper highlights some snapshots of current uses and future trends of various wireless communications in the healthcare domains, addresses their applications for e-health, states the challenges faced in a ubiquitous healthcare environment equipped with different wireless technologies, and how the resulting issues might be addressed by developing a framework that provides a flexible and convenient medical monitoring, consultation, and healthcare. View full abstract»

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    Some Early Historical Aspects of Project Sanguine

    Merrill, J.
    Communications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 22 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1974.1092206
    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 359 - 363
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Early extremely low-frequency (ELF) research and the implementation of Project Sanguine to meet the Navy's need for secure transmission to submerged fleet ballistic missile (FBM) submarines are outlined. The 1963 "Intensive Test," which proved the feasibility of ELF reception by a submarine at operational depths, is highlighted. View full abstract»

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    LTCC integrated millimeter-wave antennas (invited talk)

    Chen, Zhi Ning ; Qing, Xianming ; Xu, Junfeng ; Hong, Wei
    High Speed Intelligent Communication Forum (HSIC), 2012 4th International

    DOI: 10.1109/HSIC.2012.6212970
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. In this presentation an overview of traffic video detection will be given from the point of view of a manufacturer. Founded in 1992 Traficon is today one of the leading companies in the world for traffic video detection. The history and the current markets of Traficon are shortly presented together with some key reference projects. Next some new market and technology trends are presented and how Traficon responds to these. As a high tech company playing in a highly dynamic technology landscape it is essential to create strategic alliances with research institutes and other companies. This requires the right mind set, the need for formal ways of cooperating, the awareness that product quality is key and last but not least a good nose for market trends. Some of these aspects will be highlighted. Finally it will be explained how Traficon is dealing with this. View full abstract»

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    Radiometry before World War II: measuring infrared and millimeter-wave radiation 1800-1925

    Stephan, K.D.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 47 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2005.1608711
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 28 - 37

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    I sketch some of the highlights of the neglected early history of radiometry. The only unifying theme is the measurement of infrared and millimeter-wave radiation, with an emphasis on the personalities involved. Although there were virtually no strictly commercial applications of radiometry during the period (unless one counts the making of scientific instruments), many of the investigators also tried their hands at applied research and inventions, with mixed results. However, the first researcher we consider was a good example of the eighteenth-century "gentleman scientist:" William Herschel View full abstract»

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    Magical microwaves: the exploitation of the century

    James, J.R.
    Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, IEE Proceedings H

    Volume: 136 , Issue: 1
    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 1 - 12

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Focuses on the recent exploitation of electromagnetics concerning the sensing of images, generation of force and dispensing of heat thus highlighting important trends in the kindred RF and microwave industries. A recapitulation of the milestones in the advances over the century emphasises the interdependence of theory, material development and system innovation. In 1988, CAD/CAM and chip-integration philosophies have taken the batch-oriented microwave component industry to the threshold of mass production. Improving both the accuracy of electromagnetic design equations and the manufacturing technology are critical issues, and the revolutionary antenna phased array technology well illustrates these challenges. A complementary topic concerns the disguise of radar target signatures, mainly in defence, and the use of ingenious electromagnetic wave scattering behaviour. Finally commonplace microwave domestic cooking is seen to be but one of a multitude of applications including pest control, seed germination and cancer therapy. Skill shortages, achieving the potential of CAD in mass production, and exploiting the emerging technologies, are some of the stimulating challenges ahead. View full abstract»

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    A Historical Note on Impedance-Matching Limitations [Antenna Designer's Notebook]

    Lopez, A.R.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 55 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2013.6645159
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 163 - 164

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In Chu's classic 1948 paper, he presented results that related the theoretical lower bound on Q to the antenna's size for an electrically small antenna. He also presented results that related the theoretical upper bound on the impedance-matching bandwidth, the tolerable reflection magnitude, and the antenna's size. These latter results, which have not been fully appreciated, are highlighted in this concise article. View full abstract»

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    The history of electromagnetics as Hertz would have known it

    Elliott, R.S.
    Antennas and Propagation Society Newsletter, IEEE

    Volume: 30 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MAP.1988.6079076
    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 5 - 18

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Highlights of the separate developments of the sciences of electrostatics and magnetostatics are traced through the end of the eighteenth century, climaxed by the work of Coulomb and Poisson. The linkage of these two sciences due to the discoveries of Oersted, Ampkre, Biot and Savart, and Faraday are described, followed by the theoretical culmination embodied in the work of Maxwell. His prediction of the existence of electromagnetic waves is seen to set the stage for the epochal experiments of Hertz. View full abstract»

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